Questions tagged [block-cipher]

A block cipher is an encryption algorithm which encrypts fixed-size blocks of plaintext to same-sized blocks of ciphertext. For good ciphers every bit of the ciphertext block depends on every bit of the plaintext block and every bit of the key.

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OFB output jth-block expression clarification

Stalling says: OFB encryption can be expressed as Cj = Pj⊕E(K, Oj-1) where Oj-1 = E(K, Oj-2) Some thought should convince you that we can rewrite the encryption expression as: Cj = Pj⊕E(K, [Cj-1 ⊕Pj-...
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AES Encryption vs Decryption

We recently learned about AES in class and it was heavily emphasized that encryption and decryption in AES are not the same because the functions are not reversible. Why then, when we got to block ...
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Why are iterated substitution-permutation product ciphers only used on fixed-size plaintext blocks?

Another way to ask this question: when block ciphers were invented, why did they add the restriction that the block cipher would be restricted to blocks of a fixed size? From my laymen's point of view,...
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Why is confusion & diffusion not required PKI encryption schemes like Elgamal encryption?

The Elgamal encryption scheme is a Multiplicative Mask with the shared key. It doesn't seem to have any confusion or diffusion. So why is it not necessary here as compared to Block Ciphers?
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In what paper was OCB2 introduced?

I've been working through "Cryptanalysis of OCB2: Attacks on Authenticity and Confidentiality" 1 from earlier this year. My knowledge of OCB2 is pretty shallow though, and so I'm keen to ...
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How Do I Decipher This Ciphertext? [closed]

Ciphertext:1rUHjDnJs09VNvxLiWZzL7PXeKUHvxFVG5GT59WdS6nvOZ1UypVbKlQTcl4orHFShQMBCFGH8+4+SlFDDv4+dUIcmd3zyaBnsXKCb9lMuGmMJkslgPFvgPKNWGsSVu4BhI6/42dGG3q0Lca465xeDaEKTj3Yan/59/+...
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Re-encrypt modified file section with AES-CTR

I am trying to encrypt a file using AES/CTR/NoPadding. The goal is to re-encrypt the new/changed blocks and leave the old ones unchanged then generate a new MAC. My thinking is that when the file ...
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Can XEX or XTS modes be used with only one tweak? (part 2)

This question is similar to Can XEX or XTS modes be used with only one tweak? except I am interested to know if one can instead use $X = E_{k}(0) \otimes \alpha^j \\ C = E_{k}(P \oplus X) \oplus X$ in ...
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Can I derive IV, if I know Encrypted Txt, Key and Encryption Method?

I want to know is there any way to derive the initialization vector, if I know all the other details. AES SHA 256bits CBC pkcs5padding Input: Hello Key: 123 Output: xORGCDL88sa8cUrK8JNSCQ== Now, how ...
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Is there a universal construction for Davies-Meyer hash functions?

My understanding is that there exists no strong pseudorandom permutation for which the Davies-Meyer construction is known to yield a provably collision-resistant hash function. Were I mean provably ...
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AES in terms of Diffusion and confusion [duplicate]

I will like to get a better explanation if anyone can give on the roles of matrix multiplication (mixColumn) and S-box operations in AES regarding the diffusion-confusion properties. I know that if a ...
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Parity attack on block cipher

My misunderstanding is all about the parity attack mentioned in "Cryptography Engineering by Ferguson, Schneier and Kohno". Most modern block ciphers have a 128-bit block size, but they ...
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DES : Is Double Encryption using same key twice equivalent to single DES using different key but of same size

If we encrypt a plain text using Double DES but with same key K1, Can we get the same result as if we would encrypt the plain text using single DES but with different key, say K2. What I'm asking is ...
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Decrypting an AES string

I'm dealing with a website that loads a javascript file which eventually sets an AES hash/value (whatever it's called) as a cookie. The file is heavily obfuscated making it hard to understand certain ...
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Security of block cipher PRP(k⊕m)⊕k

Let $\mathcal S=\{0,1\}^n$ be the set of bitstrinsg of $n$ bits (for security parameter $n$). Let $P$ be a public Pseudo-Random Permutation of $\mathcal S$, efficiently computable in both directions. ...
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blockcipher-based MACs with variable length that are UF-CMA secure?

There are may papers and notes explain why CBC-MAC is only UF-CMA secure for fix length messages. Are there any other blockcipher-based (blockcipher and hash combined included) MACs that is UF-CMA ...
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What is Associated Data in AEAD?

I am trying to understand what is AEAD exactly. I am application developer not a cryptographer. I have been searching online for a while watched a bunch of Youtube videos, read through a couple of ...
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Ciphers with identical round keys

Ciphers like PRINCE or LED seem to use identical round keys. Does anybody know other cipher (may include hash functions, MACs or AEADs) that has the same property?
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Question about IND-CPA with block cipher mode with random IV (CTR$ mutation)

I know for a fact that CTR random is IND-CPA secure due to if an adversary want to break it, it will have to run a long loop where the $$\mathit{Adv}^{ind-cpa}_{CTR~random} = C(2^{n},q) - 0$$ However, ...
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Can combining two secure block ciphers be insecure?

Let's say we have two secure block ciphers FOO and BAR. Will a new block cipher built by combining them into a single new block cipher result in any insecurity? $$\begin{align} \operatorname{BAZ}_K(x)&...
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Randomness Testing of Block Ciphers with 256-bit Block/ Key length

NIST explained the process of "Randomness Testing of the AES Candidate Algorithms" in the document. The document explains the generation of 9 datasets for AES candidates with 128-bit block ...
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OpenSSL aes-128-cfb does not produce expected size

I try to implement aes-128-cfb myself for learning. To confirm whether my implementation is correct, I want to verify it with a well-known library such as OpenSSL. But then I noticed something strange ...
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Is there any block cipher which is also a pseudo-random-permutation over the key

As block ciphers are defined as a pseudo-random-permutation over the data (keyed with the key), I was wondering, if there are also constructions for which key and data can be switched and the cipher ...
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Check linear and differential cryptanalysis of a new block cipher [duplicate]

I am developing a new block cipher primitive. I would like to test its robustness against attacks of linear and differential cryptanalysis. Is there a tool to evaluate this using only plaintext and ...
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Good key update algorithms for key evolving schemes

In schemes like SAKE(Symmetric-key Authenticated Key Exchange) , the master keys (used to authenticate parties and generate session keys) are evolving, ie undergo transition $K=update(K)$. What is a ...
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“16-bit DES encryption algorithm”

I need to use encryption software from PSpice for my SPICE model. In a user guide on page 71 they claim to use a "16-bit DES encryption algorithm". According to the wiki DES is using a 64-...
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Is there any cryptographic scheme with block size more than 128 bit

I am asking this question out of curiosity if there are any cryptographic algorithm that has a block length more that 128 bit. I am new to cryptography and I didn't know any. AES 128, 192, 256 all ...
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How many repetition in Ciphertext-Only-Attack?

Given the following algorithm, how many times do I need to repeat step 2&3 to complete the attack? Please note that block size and key are 128 bits. Step1: Prepare set S of size 2^k which contains ...
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Are the Serpent Test Vectors incorrect?

I have recently written an implementation of Serpent and was testing it against known vectors to no avail. Using 256-bit key, I compared my encryption to the test vectors located here: http://www.cs....
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Can repeatedly encrypting a message with a secure cipher ever produce the original input like what happens in ROT13?

Lets say we have a message 'm'. We encrypt 'm' using a stream cipher or any other type of cipher with cryptographic security that produces an output equal in length to the length of 'm'. Then if we ...
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Design flaws when designing a MAC-function

Suppose we want to build a very basic hash function like this: $$c_i = h(c_{i-1},x_i) = c_{i-1}\oplus x_i \quad\quad mit \;\; i\geq1, c_0 = \operatorname{IV}$$ Now suppose we'd use this hash-function ...
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RCON for AES 192 and 256

This is question about how many RCON values are used in AES 192 and 256. I read the NIST Publication introducing AES and in Appendix A.2 and A.3 (Key Expansion for 192 and 256-bit keys), only $rcon_1$ ...
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Is $f_N$ in this hash function is Matyas-Meyer-Oseas scheme?

I propose a hash function as following: H is an Merkle-Damgard hash function with a compression function $f: \{0,1\}^{3n} \to \{0, 1\}^{2n}$. Output function $f_N: \{0,1\}^{3n} \to \{0, 1\}^n$. M is ...
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Block cipher modes used in real life

There is a number of block cipher modes, including ECB, CBC, CFB, OFB, CTR and others. After reading "Serious Cryptography. A Practical Introduction to Modern Encryption" by Jean-Philippe ...
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Are there issues in how cryptography is used in this short code sample?

I want to encrypt some small text files so I can put them online, in non-restricted access (not the best idea, but it's cheap and simple). I know I should use something like Truecrypt instead of this, ...
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Attack against $\operatorname{DESA}_{k,k_1} (x) \underset{\text{def}}= \operatorname{DES}_k(x)⊕k_1$

Problem 5.16 in this pdf, from the book: Christof Paar, Jan Pelzl, Understanding Cryptography 5.16. This is your chance to break a cryptosystem. As we know by now, cryptography is a tricky business. ...
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Block cipher unconditional security under ciphertext only attacks

Does there exist a block cipher which provides security against ciphertext only attacks, which has an unconditional security proof guaranteeing this is true? I know the existence of a provably secure ...
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Whats the probability a random cipher has a high probability differential?

This is a bit vauge and long winded. Any partial answers or comments/ways to make this more precise would be greatly appreciated. Fix some general structure for a cipher, for example Sbox then ...
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One-time pad with public key changes

Let $k$ by a randomly generated $n$ bit string, and $m$ a $n$ bit message. Then putting $c = m \oplus k$ is the one-time pad and is perfectly secure. Now assume the transmitter and receiver wanted ...
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PRESENT cipher algorithm Big “O” Notation

I am currently doing a research paper on the PRESENT Cipher algorithms and one of the components that I need to include is time and space complexity. I have tried reading academic articles and ...
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Memory required for known plaintext attack on general block cipher

Consider a block cipher on binary strings of length $k$ and keys which can be any binary string of length $n$. With $k2^n+k$ memory we can store all key/ciphertext pairs for a fixed plaintext and this ...
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Do ciphers with a key size of 64 bits still have use under very limited attack models?

If we have a very performance critical interactive session, like a video game, running on a trusted platform (video game console). If our goal is to prevent exfiltration of up to date information (...
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Perfect secrecy and block ciphers

Consider a block cipher that encrypts bit strings of length $n$, where the key-space of the block cipher is of size $2^{kn}$, $k \geq 1$. My understanding of perfect secrecy is that a system is ...
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One round of AES-128

Maybe it’s a silly question, I’m interested in the best known/chosen plaintext attack on only one round of AES-128. More specifically, what is the smallest number of known/chosen plaintext/ciphertext ...
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How to find the inverse of a 3x3 MDS matrix

I implemented a block cipher similar to AES. But the reason I can't decrypt is that I can't get the inverse MDS matrix. The MDS matrix I used is a 3x3 MDS matrix on $GF(2^8) \implies GF(2^8)$ like AES ...
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Error during transmission with one plaintext block (Cipher block operation)

I was given a graph like this, and the problem was stated as: if something happens to P2 then only P2 would not be retrieved on the decryption side, and all other P's can be retrieved normally. I do ...
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Proof of probability of weak keys in block cipher

My textbook has the following theorem: Given a block cipher with a key length of K bits and blocksize of n bits as well as t plaintext-ciphertext pairs, the expected number of false keys which ...
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Markov ciphers - generalized group operation

I’m reading this paper of Lai and Massey where they give a very nice perspective on differential attacks in general http://www.isiweb.ee.ethz.ch/papers/arch/xlai-mass-inspec-1991-3.pdf They do their ...
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Rivest - Time Memory Tradeoff Using Distinguished Points

A while ago, Hellman introduced a time-memory tradeoff for chosen plaintext attack on block ciphers. There is an innovation due Rivest using a concept of 'distinguished points'. I am looking for the ...
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How is a block-chain stored?

Background of the problem: I am undertaking a blockchain course at University and I have taken up a case study for blockchain that relates to logistics. The requirements are simple, yet I am confused ...

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