# Questions tagged [circuit]

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8 questions
31 views

### Efficient fields over arithmetic circuits

What sort of fields is efficient over an arithmetic circuit? Efficient meaning that given a field $\mathbb{F}_p$, reduction (modulo) does not require many multiplications and preferably inversion was ...
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### How would I convert an arithmetic circuit into a system of bilinear equations?

Given an arithmetic circuit, are there any examples of turning it into a system of bilinear equations, with the end goal of turning it into a matrix?
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### What is a rank-1 constraint system?

Why not rank-2 constraint system or rank-3 constraint system? How do rank-1 constraint systems link to circuits?
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### In constraint systems for ZK proofs, why are multiplications counted but are additions not?

For example, If I wanted to prove that: $$x^2 + x^3 = 45$$ This cost of this would be calculated by counting the number of multiplications that need to be done, and not the addition of $x$ squared ...
247 views

### Representing a function as FHE circuit

I am actually trying to study homomorphic encryption (on lattices) but I'm facing a problem. Every paper that I have read so far talk about writing the function to evaluate on ciphertexts as a circuit,...
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### How to determine the layers of a circuit?

In many cryptographic applications like Multiparty Computation (MPC) or Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE), you consider a function $f$ described by a circuit over some algebraic structure, typically ...
In zkSNARKs in a Nutshell, page 12, what exactly are $I_{free}$ and $V_{free}$? Why do we have $V_{free}$ but not $W_{free}$?