Questions tagged [classical-cipher]

Ciphers invented before the era of computers and modern cryptographic theory. Classical ciphers typically operate on letters instead of bits and are usually designed to be implemented by hand or using simple mechanical devices.

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How secure is a book derived key and what can be done to strenghten it? [duplicate]

If you have a manual encryption system where the keying is done by extracting a key from a book, a major weakness is that an adversary can search trough all existing books to find a perfect Match and ...
2answers
252 views

How was the 5 digit random number in the VIC cipher generated?

Knowing that VIC was a "spy cipher" it is unlikely that the agents used a cryptographic device to genreate the 5 digit number but how did they do it?
1answer
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Repeated Vignère Cipher

I was looking into the Vignère Cipher when I thought of something. Would you improve the security of the cipher if you shifted each letter (from the text you want to encrypt) with each letter of the ...
0answers
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How can I determine the Hill cipher key in this case?

I have been struggling with a Hill cipher problem for many days, without any luck. I have the following ciphertext, which I know is an encrypted excerpt from an Edgar Allan Poe story: ...
1answer
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Vigenere Cipher Methods

Is there already a cipher which uses a method like vigenere yet the shifted encrypting alphabets are mixed? i.e. ASDFGHJKLZXCVBNMQWERTYUIOP BNMQWERTYUIOPASDFGHJKLZXCV CVBNMQWERTYUIOPASDFGHJKLZX etc....
1answer
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flaw in perfect secrecy of shift cipher?

Why do we say shift cipher is perfectly secure when it is easy to break it (source)? Let's say I have a plaintext. "Australia is a big country"; I encrypt it using a shift of 2; That ciphertext can be ...
1answer
82 views

Mixing Autokey with Regular Vignere

It seems to me that cryptanalysis of the autokey cipher relies on patterns being found in key attempts, easy when it's English you're looking for, but how can you do this if you're just getting ...
1answer
119 views

Can a message be encrypted with BOTH mono-alpha and poly-alpha ciphers?

For my class assignment, I was given this text; Qpuvu vo vv stazpuykzh Hhycmlmv asb. Ad dhyaqva wh uyo uzb jpwww Avlw. Tkpjllfdmbp zoatz vzjavfvna ZLHqh. Amva luy yyvlz yu bhk zua zlhvvalaz yow ...
0answers
159 views

Cryptanalyze strategy for cipher text [closed]

I have the following ciphertext that I want to decipher: bnmkogt vgyhni uioopkm xswercvdf yuiogvbnm ghjy cftyhng tgeyjn xdrtygvc zsefx xdrgbhu tgbnmko tgbnmhyui yhnmko vbnmgyuiok So far, what I ...
1answer
542 views

Does there exist a Cipher / Hash identification tool?

Let's suppose I have two strings One string is plaintext The other is the result of running the plaintext through an unknown cipher. Does there exist a tool where I can enter the pre and post-...
0answers
138 views

Fastest / easiest way to find rotor wiring without physical inspection on Enigma Machine emulator

We have an Enigma machine emulator we are trying to replicate. Machine has 3 rotor positions and 6 rotors that can be selected. The input goes through 3 rotors then is reflected back to start as is ...
1answer
217 views

Please prove distinguishability given a non-perfectly secure cipher

I'm trying to prove that a perfectly secure cipher yields indistinguishability. I already know and can prove that a perfect cipher => indistinguishability by the following proof: \begin{align} \Pr(...
1answer
367 views

Keys-space for a restricted substitution cipher

How can one calculate the key-space for a restricted substitution cipher? A restricted substitution cipher is one where no letter is assigned to itself. For an alphabet with 26 letters how many keys ...
1answer
60 views

How would I go about solving this cipher? [closed]

I am not sure this is the right place to post this... recently I was given the following image by my friend in the context of a game we play together. Please note the characters at the bottom. I ...
2answers
302 views

rotor machines: secrecy of wiring

During the heydays of rotor machines, the internal rotor wiring was always a closely guarded secret. Even fully cleared repair staff was not allowed to do anything that could reveal it. As the ...
4answers
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In English, are there any words which encrypt to other words under the Caesar Cipher?

Are there any words in the English language which, when encrypted using the Caesar Cipher with any key, result in another English word? How may one go about determining which Caesar shifts are weakest ...
1answer
601 views

Clarification on Hill Cipher crib dragging technique

--- this has been edited as I realised the question was silly. replaced with helpful information --- I want to confirm the following: Given ciphertext "AGHTDIX... [cont.]" (C) and crib (a word ...
1answer
1k views

Cracking transposition cipher

I have a task to decrypt custom made transposition cipher, as I'm not the cryptography expert, I would appreciate any help. I've been given the table of characters ... ...
2answers
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What is the difference between a dual cipher and a tweak?

I have looked at the idea of dual ciphers but I cannot convince myself I really understand them. I think I just need a very simple worked example. I was given the definition: Two ciphers $E$ and $E′$...
2answers
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How were one-time pads and keys historically generated?

In the 20th century, it was common for various intelligence agencies and military organizations to use ciphering machines and one-time pads. However, no source I've seen ever mentions the process of ...
1answer
276 views

How did the cryptographers of Bletchley Park figure out the chi stream of the Lorenz cipher?

How did the Bletchley Park code breakers figure out the chi stream of the Lorenz cipher, that was obscured in the ciphertext, which British code breakers eventually decoded? It's written in The ...
1answer
46 views

How to decode a caesar that goes to transposed plaintext?

When decoding vigeneres, I am left with Caesars. Often when the key is longer, these are shorter so normal frequency analysis won't work. Is there another method I can implement without adding a load ...
0answers
76 views

Сryptanalysis of Hill's method

The brutal ciphertext is given. The text volume is more than 6000 characters. It is known that the text is encrypted with a 7x7 matrix. Unknown key and plaintext. Is it possible to crack this code? ...
1answer
2k views

How large is the Playfair cipher keyspace? [duplicate]

In the Playfair cipher, is the key space 5 x 5 = 25 or 25 x 25 = 625? I'm trying to work out the size of the key space if each set of equivalent keys is counted as one key.
1answer
524 views

Affine Cipher Keys that map plaintext to a given ciphertext

We first need to show that for each pair of plaintext-ciphertext letters ( x,y ), there are exactly 12 keys that encrypt x to y . For each choice of a , the key ( a,y − ax ) encrypts the ...
3answers
517 views

How to “score” partially decoded ciphertext?

I am attempting to write a basic codebreaking program to break simple ciphers (think caesar cipher & railfence) such as these here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_cipher. The program ...
4answers
1k views

An unbreakable book cipher?

In a recent press interview, a former terrorist of the 1970s described the cipher his group used to communicate. He claimed that method was unbreakable and I wonder if cryptographers today would agree....
2answers
564 views

Is there any quantum resistant pen-and-paper or mind cipher?

I know about VIC and Solitare but as I understand they are not quantum resistant ciphers. Is there any quantum resistant pen-and-paper or mind cipher?
5answers
31k views

Creating your own encryption and decryption algorithm

I'm very uneducated when it comes to cryptography. I have tried to find an answer to my question, but what I've read doesn't quite cover what I'm asking. I have thought up my own encryption algorithm ...
1answer
686 views

What kind of classical ciphers are there? [closed]

I want a list of classical ciphers that can be used, I'm trying to find more classical ciphers online, but there isn't too much information, so, can someone list some more classical ciphers, and not ...
1answer
571 views

How can I decode a substitution cipher in the form of pictures?

I'm very new to cryptography (and cryptanalysis), and I'm wondering how to decode a substitution cipher, where all of the letters are replaced with symbols, that is, pictogram cipher?
1answer
357 views

What are Alternatives to basic ROT-n Ciphers which Don't Lose 'Context'?

I've got this neural network running like a champ on my machine. The data is concatenated works of shakespeare in a plaintext file. RNN trains on the data, then gives you a 'sample', aka it tries to ...
3answers
419 views

How is the affine cipher a permutation?

It seems there would be some collisions in what the different symbols map to, resulting in loss of information. For example, say we use the English alphabet, multiply by 2 and take the congruence ...
0answers
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1answer
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monoalphabetic substitution perfect secrecy

I have this question that I'm trying to answer: Consider a monoalphabetic substitution cipher applied to plaintexts consisting of just a single letter. That is, $$M = \{0, 1, . . . , 25\}$$ The ...
2answers
494 views

Vigenère cipher - sorted order

i'm new to cryptography so i feel sorry for this newbie question! Can anyone tell me how Vigenère work with sorted order? For example i have this in my book: LADY(KEY) 3124(SORTED ORDER) 312431243(...
2answers
8k views

To decrypt a cipher text encrypted using keyed substitution

I'm looking for decryption of this cipher text which was encrypted using simple substitution using secret key. I have already spend a lot of time on this. However it should not be that tough. So I ...
2answers
233 views

What type of cipher or encryption method is this called?

Let's say I have a key value of 5. The message I want to encrypt is "AAAA" A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, and so on... the final message is "FLRX" Each letter will be the value of itself + the value of the ...
1answer
79 views

How does Fialka manage to have a letter encipher unto itself?

http://www.cryptomuseum.com/crypto/fialka/index.htm Fialka was an electromechanical rotor machine. How does it manage to have a letter encipher unto itself. I realize it does something clever by ...
1answer
435 views

Playfair cipher or ADFGX? [closed]

As part of an assignment, I have been given a cipher text of FFFXXXFGXAGFAFDAFXADDAGAD with the following description, ...
2answers
4k views

Is the Caesar cipher really a cipher?

In this lecture by Dan Boneh on Coursera it was stated at minute 03:37 that The Caesar cipher, actually, is not a cipher at all. And the reason is that it doesn't have a key. What a Caesar cipher ...
1answer
12k views

Finding a Caesar cipher key given encrypted message and part of decrypted message?

How can I find the Caesar cipher key if I have an encrypted message and part of the decrypted message? For example: I know that the message ends with a constant set of words, but the length of the key ...
2answers
401 views

Does shift cipher with non-uniform plain text probability have perfect secrecy?

I am having a hard time grasping the perfect secrecy concept. (I have already tried solving a couple of similar problems, so please don't think I am trying to get you guys to do my work, I really am ...
1answer
1k views

How to decode a Playfair message with a partial key?

I've been given a Playfair ciphered message and a partial key, where a few key letters are missing: Corrupted key (? stands for a missing letter): ...
1answer
1k views

Is there a general way to crack this graph cipher? [closed]

Every coded message has a numerical key, it can be a number any digits long. Each decoded letter of the message is placed on separate points of a 10 by 10 coordinate graph. Each letter is represented ...
0answers
50 views

How do you determine which classical technique was used?

For a class assignment we had to encrypt a message of at least 140 characters using only one of the classical cryptographic techniques. For extra credit we can decrypt someone else's message. I figure ...
1answer
828 views

Why don't homophones hide multiple-letter patterns?

I am reading about mono-alphabetic ciphers, which are prone to letter frequency analysis. To counter this, we can provide multiple substitutions, known has homophones for a single letter e.g. e could ...
1answer
452 views

M-94 disk cipher keyspace

If the M-94 had only 10 disks, what would be the keyspace of the resulting cipher and what is the useful keypspace of the 10 disk cipher?
1answer
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Has the Linear Congruent Generator ever been used in any of the early crypto algorithms?

The Linear Congruent random number generator is the simplest kind of pseudo random number generator. I know that its now long broken. But I am curious -- has it ever been used in any of the early ...