Questions tagged [cryptocurrency]

A cryptocurrency is a digital currency powered by cryptography. This tag is applicable only to Q&As about the **cryptographic mechanisms** used by a currency, not for questions about economy, usage, or acquisition of any particular currency. The latter kinds are unwelcome. Please note that Stackexchange has dedicated websites for Bitcoin, Ethereum, Monero, etc.

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How to receive money via from another country via Trust Wallet? [closed]

My friend and I have a Trust Wallet, but haven’t used it before. How can he send some currency to my wallet? He lives in another country.
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Give ordering as A<B<C<D by comparing MiMC,Poseidon, Pedersen and SHA256 in terms of Gas cost, capacity, proof generation efficiency, proof size [closed]

I need to compare the 4 hashing techniques-MiMC,Poseidon, Pedersen and SHA256 in four aspects gas cost, capacity, proof generation efficiency and proof size. Efficieny can be compared based on proven ...
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Is it theoretically possible to delegate public key generation?

Imagine the following scenario: In a given cryptocurrency, privacy should be as high as possible. For this purpose, a new account with a new address is created for every incoming transaction (the ...
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What is the general equation for determining the viability of a brute force attack on BIP-39? (Only performing access with pre-image - 12 seed words)

I'd like to be able to better define the security of a BIP-39 algorithm where I just consider the process of giving me a "seed phrase". Imagining a scenario where a hacker would try to gain ...
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What is the difference between Solution-Verification and Challenge-Response variants of Proof of Work;

Sorry if question is really dumb, I am new to crypto :( If the client provides the solution for the PoW Challenge-Response, in my understanding, the solution of that challenge should be verified. So I ...
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P256 seed problem

I'm reading up on elliptic curves and their history and it seems that people don't trust P256 seed which is defined in FIPS 186-3 on page 89 to be SEED = c49d3608 86e70493 6a6678e1 139d26b7 819f7e90 ...
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Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET)

Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET) was discovered by Intel in 2016 as a consensus mechanism primarily for permissioned blockchain networks. Importantly, we can only use this concept in permissioned ...
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What's the best way to encrypt crypto seeds? [closed]

I would like to encrypt cryptocurrency wallet seeds (12 to 24-word passphrases) for replication and secure preservation. The seeds would be in a .txt or .rtf format before encryption. I would like to ...
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cryWhat algorithm are Trezor One and Trezor T using to sign messages? [closed]

My knowledge of cryptography is beyond shallow, and I have a problem I cannot solve. Trezor wallets have two message signing formats: "Trezor" and "Electrum". I have a method in my ...
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Question about Harden and Normal Key derivation

I am reading about Hardened and Normal child key in chapter 5 of the book "Mastering Bitcoin" by Andreas, along with this detailed thread and BIP-32. Here are some of my understanding about ...
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The simulation sound extractable NIZK

I was recently reading the paper Hawk: The Blockchain Model of Cryptography and Privacy-Preserving Smart Contracts. To prove the security, the authors assume that the NIZK used in the protocol is ...
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two closely distanced ECDSA keys

Assume that one uses two private keys $x_1$ and $x_2$ to generate two public ECDSA keys $y_1$ and $y_2$ (e.g., used as public key for Bitcoin address). The distance between $x_1$ and $x_2$ is small (e....
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Modulo p in Elliptic Curve Cryptography

To carry out Elliptic Curve Cryptography between parties, are all elliptic curve equations considered to be in the form $\bmod p$? For example, the $secp256k1$ Bitcoin curve of the equation $y^2=x^3+7$...
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Which application protocols use elliptic curve key recovery?

Section 4.1.6 of https://www.secg.org/sec1-v2.pdf describes a technique for recovering public keys from ECDSA signatures. I guess Ethereum uses this. Like if you want to validate a particular ...
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zkSNARKS: What prevents the prover from chosing a different polynomial than the one he is expected to know

I am reading this explanation of zkSnark written by Maksym Petkus - http://www.petkus.info/papers/WhyAndHowZkSnarkWorks.pdf Here the Prover knows a polynomial of degree 3, 2 of the solutions of the ...
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Is this simple Proof of Work algorithm based on SHA256 susceptible to length extension attack?

Each block's contents are hashed into 32 bytes using $\operatorname{SHA-256}$ (call this string $a$). In order for the block to be accepted, there must be a 256bit nonce (call this string $b$) ...
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Why "1" in 51% attack on Blockchain network

In many sources, included Wikipedia, we read: Any pool that achieves 51% hashing power can effectively overturn network transactions, resulting in double-spending. My question is: Why do we talk ...
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Summarized steps for zero knowledge proof on a public blockchain transaction

Im triying to understand Zero knowledge proof and its applications, my first instict is a blockchain (I will use Bitcoin-like for simplicity sake) Im triying to wrap my head around it by describing ...
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2 votes
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How would a malicious group of co-signers use a hash collision to sign an unintended message?

According to BIP340: However, a major drawback of this optimization is that finding collisions in a short hash function is easy. This complicates the implementation of secure signing protocols in ...
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How to get public key and bitcoin compressed address from the coordinates (x,y) generated by ECDSA?

I have my x (0xca668a8b5f71e8724aada4b5343c28702a481787855cc42228b8fff97fe94d6a) and y (0x19dd3a603a55b3d8c5f62cbe177b9b63693fb8c91d76845bafc843a7aa19ea55) coordinates generated by ecdsa with a ...
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How does not tagging hashes result in leaking the secret key if a nonce is re-used in a different scheme?

I'm reading through BIP340 and I'm having trouble understanding this part: For example, without tagged hashing a BIP340 signature could also be valid for a signature scheme where the only difference ...
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Is there anything stopping me from making my own NFT of an existing NFT?

I feel like I some understanding of cryptocurrencies, but what never made sense to me are NFTs. This is my current understanding of NFT's NFT's are a type of smart contract Smart contracts aren't ...
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How can I understand the math behind crypto, especially that used in blockchains / distributed ledgers?

A bit of a background about me; Computer Engineer but during my studies I didn't dive too deep into the maths, especially the crypto maths that is used to make the blockchain and cryptography work. I'...
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Why are public keys derived from elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) and not from hashing?

I've just started studying Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, so I might be wrong, but so far my understanding is that public keys are derived from private keys using ECDSA, in Bitcoin's case using ...
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Difference between fuzzy vault and fuzzy commitment?

https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/2905055.2905118 Quoting the above paper's abstract, "Biometric cryptosystem can apply fuzzy vault, fuzzy commitment, helper data and secure sketch, whereas, ...
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Does the number of bits in the block nonce influence the security of the blockchain?

I know that Bitcoin uses a 32bit nonce that miners iterate over trying to hit the target number of prefixed 0's in the hash. If they run through all 2^32 combinations they then change something else ...
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Let user(s) chose to mint a specific NFT from a solana collection

I have a collection of images to transform in NFTs. For that purpose I have selected to work with solana blockchain, since it is fast and cheap. I have used the following software resources: solana-...
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Literature about cryptography and programming on c++ [closed]

I'm interested in learning about cryptography and making something practical out of it - make own cryptocurrency sometime im future. I think I have good knowlegde of c++, I learned from learncpp.com ...
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Which passphrase length is good so it's hard to break bitcoin's PBKDF2 key?

According to https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0039.mediawiki#From_mnemonic_to_seed To create a binary seed from the mnemonic, we use the PBKDF2 function with a mnemonic sentence (in ...
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DIY TRNG on an embedded system for Ethereum private key generation

I'm trying to build this Ethereum hardware wallet on a custom designed embedded system and I'm no expert. Googling around I found this Robust, low-cost, auditable random number generation for embedded ...
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Are there batched vector/polynomial commitment proofs with sublinear proof size for Verkle Trees?

High level goal: a Verkle tree (Merkle tree using algebraic vector commitments at each level rather than hashes) with depth d where I can prove the existence of <...
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Is a truly p2p ledger (cryptocurrency) possible?

Is a truly p2p ledger possible, where there is no need for a third party (or a number of third parties) to verify ledgers. Probably a system where the two parties who don't trust each other can verify ...
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Private Key from Extended Private Key and Public Address [closed]

Is it possible to generate a private key from a public address and an extended private key? For context: I am using C# and NBitcoin. The public address is generated from the outside via an extended ...
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Is it safe to use the same seed phrase for different cryptocurrency protocols

I want to use the same seed phrase for severl cryptocoins (Bticoin, Ethereum, Nano, etc.). I understand that each protocol has its own phrase length and possibly a different way of generating the ...
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How does hardware wallet recovery work?

I'm investigating hardware cryptocurrency wallets and am trying to understand how recovery works from a technical point of view. These wallets typically provide a 24-word "recovery seed" ...
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Are zk-STARKs really quantum resistant?

I see lots of mention that zk-STARK proofs that are being developed notably for use in blockchain networks are labelled as "quantum resistant". Many articles and reports that state this, ...
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How to pad in the SHA256 Algorithm (an example using Bitcoin Header)?

For any bitcoin block we combine various Header fields to create a string which is an input to a 2 pass SHA algorithm. The resultant hash must match with the Hash in the Block header for the Block to ...
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Crypto Economic Attacks such as Nothing At Stake and Sandwich Attack from Archive Nodes on Polkadot

Could you please advise me if there are threat vectors from archive nodes such as front running attacks, sandwich attacks and nothing at stake attacks as they are quite powerful in terms of the ...
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Related Key Attack on Schnorr Signature - Why does the challenge include $\psi = g^x$, not $y$?

The original Schnorr signature scheme suffers from a Related Key Attack (RKA) as described by Morita et al. The authors of this paper then suggest a modification to the signature algorithm to prevent ...
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Generating public/private key pair without a trusted dealer

I want to make an Ethereum wallet where I can prove no one has the private keys in one place. Basically, I was wondering whether the ECDSA signatures could be generated by multiparty computation like ...
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1 vote
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How to generate a random string in Python for a mission-critical application

I'm trying to figure something out, but it is difficult for me. I need to generate a fully random string in Python. My current function is attached below. I just want to know whether this is secure ...
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How are zero-knowledge proofs used in blockchains to achieve anonymity?

The idea of blockchain is clear to me - If we reach consensus and all participants have the same state, it is easy to verify transactions. But new mechanisms (like Z-Cash) allow this without the ...
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Bitcoin energy waste

Reading learnmeabitcoin I found the following how bitcoin works: The bitcoin difficulty self adjusts so that a block is solved on average in 10 minutes. Solving a block requires the miner to generate ...
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What hash structure is Facebook Diem using?

Some cryptocurrencies use fixed values in some positions in the resulting hash, like a fixed amount of initial zeros. What fixed positions and fixed values are Facebook Diem using?
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Is it possible to provably make cryptocurrency tokens inaccessible?

Would it be possible to generate an agreed upon public key that has no corresponding private key (maybe by using the latest few block hashes of a blockchain) and then send cryptocurrency to that ...
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What are the algorithms used in Facebook's Diem algorithm?

Facebook plan a new cryptocurrency release called Diem. What algorithms are used? What output size is used for the hash function?
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is it efficient if blockchain uses double Hash algorithms $H_1$ and $H_2$?

I wonder is it efficient to use less Target condition and double hash algorithms with different target (or the same target with different Hash algorithms) and one nonce in a Block. Example Target 1 ...
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1 vote
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Moving a monero wallet+ node from a disk to another one [closed]

I dont know where to put this question, and the most appropriate would be here i guess, i found no criptocurrency stack, if its not here i would apreciate a link to post this I've downloaded a monero ...
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3 votes
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Are newer crypto currencies intrinsically more energy efficient, or just newer? [closed]

There's a lot in the news about the energy cost of Bitcoin recently. Recently Elon Musk talked about "currencies using <1% the energy per transaction of BTC". This page provides some ...
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BIP 39: If I mix my 24 seed phrase with another 24 words, will the checksum property allow an attacker to retrieve the original seed phrase?

Assume that I have a 24-word passphrase that I want to store securely but online by mixing it with another 24 words in a manner only I know. Does the checksum property somehow help an attacker to ...
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