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Questions tagged [cryptographic-hardware]

Cryptographic hardware enables the handling of cryptographic tasks and/or problems using hardware instead of software solutions.

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Technical feasibility of decrypting https by replacing the computer's PRNG

Intel has an on-chip RdRand function which supposedly bypasses the normally used entropy pool for /dev/urandom and directly injects output. Now rumors are going on that Intel works together with the ...
Luc's user avatar
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25 votes
5 answers
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Can a hard drive store clear text data that is physically impossible to retrieve?

I'm trying to study how HSM and TPM works when storing secret data in clear text. How can they achieve physical impossibility in retrieving secret data? I get the point in software, if you just have ...
einstein's user avatar
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19 votes
3 answers
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Webcam random number generator

I have a question about random number generators. I have read from a real random number generator, based on a webcam ("randcam"). My problem is, that I do not really understand how the generation of ...
Simon Rühle's user avatar
18 votes
1 answer
1k views

Crypto AG (Switzerland) - Which algorithms were used and how did the backdoors work?

Backstory Crypto AG was a company located in Switzerland that specialized in communication security. They produced a number of encryption machines (some similar to the infamous Enigma) used for ...
AleksanderCH's user avatar
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16 votes
1 answer
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AMD's implementation of RDRAND instruction

The latest AMD programmer manuals, dated June 2015, include the RDRAND instruction in the instruction set. For completeness, it lacks ...
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15 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is it possible to utilize an AES-128 encryption hardware unit for AES-256?

There exist processors (for example ARM v8/v9 archicteture based), which cannot do AES-256 hardware based, but are equipped with AES-128 encryption hardware units. Is it possible to utilize an AES-...
0laf's user avatar
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13 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is CPU timing jitter a usable entropy source?

In some virtualized environments, the only source of entropy available is CPU timing jitter. Can one get enough entropy from this source for practical uses? Also, is this secure against local side-...
Demi's user avatar
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12 votes
2 answers
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Does using modulo (%) affect quality of randomness?

I'm writing a small script that generates random non-signed decimal integers within a certain range of values. I'm using GNU od, with the following command: ...
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12 votes
2 answers
4k views

Different ways/algorithms for implementing AES

I have seen a couple software implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard. They are pretty much straight forward, i.e. they are implemented exactly the same way as the AES is described. This ...
jordi88's user avatar
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11 votes
3 answers
5k views

Accelerating SHA-1

I have a program where computing SHA-1 is the bottleneck. This is using OpenSSL 1.0.0e on a 2.6Ghz 16-core Opteron where I get about 325MiB/s throughput. (SHA1 here is via Andy Polyakov's x86-64 ...
Fixee's user avatar
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11 votes
3 answers
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Usage difference between x86 RDRAND and RDSEED

Modern x86 CPUs often have the RDRAND and RDSEED instructions for hardware generation of random numbers. I just don't understand the difference between them. Intel has this document: https://...
Myria's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
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(EC)DSA signature without hashing, or with offloaded hash?

In (EC)DSA as per FIPS 186-4, the message to sign is first hashed. Imagine that we skip this hashing stage, instead put the message where the hash was, and constrain the size of message $h$ to the ...
fgrieu's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
473 views

How to tell if a hardware RNG is rigged?

On a related note of building my own RNG, as someone suggested to use several commericial solutions how can I check if it is rigged against me? (although I am still strongly biased to a homebrew ...
Maxthon Chan's user avatar
10 votes
4 answers
663 views

Is there an algorithm or hardware that can sign/verify natural time?

PGP/GPG can used to sign text, others use public key to verify them. So one could say, that these cryptographic algorithms deal with space. Are there any algorithms that can deal with time? E.g. I ...
est's user avatar
  • 213
9 votes
3 answers
2k views

HRNG for One Time Pad

I have just advanced to the last grade of high school (in Denmark). In this year, we all get to do one big project, where we can build/invent/create whatever we want to "solve a problem". As I study ...
Janman's user avatar
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8 votes
5 answers
3k views

Can error correction and detection be done without adding extra bits?

I have gone through error detection and correction techniques like Hamming codes, and BCH codes require extra parity bits for detection and correction. While sending data, we always seem to introduce ...
Krishna Balupala's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

Hardware AES: can we have a decryption implementation only?

I'm wondering if implementing only the AES decryption can reduce the hardware cost? And does anybody have some examples of the cost (speed, size) of hardware AES implementation?
abaobaide's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
1k views

Is there a cryptographic algorithm which is immune to side channel attacks?

Is there any cryptographic algorithm immune to side channel attacks based on scan chain? In VLSI point of view.
user286368's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
365 views

How relevant are hardware implementations of crypto algorithms?

All of the SHA-3 finalists discussed speed and efficiency of a hardware implementation of their algorithms. How relevant are such details? I'm curious about who commercializes hardware that ...
Lone Shepherd's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
5k views

Is ChaCha20 safer than AES with respect to side-channel attacks?

I've already seen some topics on this matter, but I feel like my question hasn't really been answered. Given the following: AES must be implemented in hardware (i.e. using the AES-NI instruction set)...
Dreadlockyx's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
669 views

Customizable Crypto Algorithms in Hardware

Several companies offer customized cryptographic algorithms, for example Crypto AG (www.crypto.ch/en/company): The individually created customer algorithms are unknown to anyone else and are not ...
guest's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
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Difference between Hardware implemented algorithm and software implemented one?

In the articles about cryptography I see the words Hardware implemented and Software implemented. I'm curious to know what is the difference between them? In the other words, even in the computer ...
Ebrahim Ghasemi's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
3k views

What is a smart card?

In many cryptographic protocols, some information is transmitted within smart cards. So, what is a smart card? Is it a physical card? What are they used for in cryptographic protocols?
user4665's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
438 views

Are coprocessors (Intel Phi) a threat for modern key stretching functions?

Modern key stretching functions (password-based key derivation functions, also used for password hashing) are memory-hard to mitigate parallel attacks, and as far as I know this is working well. Last ...
refex's user avatar
  • 221
6 votes
3 answers
2k views

What are the dangers of using CPU clock drift for generating random data?

From what I understand, a physical source of true randomness could be achieved with a multi-core processor, by using clock drift between two or more cores. However, a processor is easier to ...
dt_slash's user avatar
  • 105
6 votes
2 answers
2k views

Constant time implementations of crypto algorithms

To protect against cache attacks (side channel attacks) generally constant time crypto implementations are advised. In some cases DJB released new algorithms (chacha) that are designed with this in ...
stflow's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
400 views

How long does it take to extract a key from a FIPS-140 Level 2 device?

How long does it take to extract a key from a FIPS-140 Level 2 device? What records are there of successful extraction? How much did the first extraction from a given device cost? How much would a ...
William Whyte's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
395 views

Would asymmetric cryptography be feasible in World War II?

Assuming people in the forties would have known asymmetric cryptographic methods like RSA, would they have been able to make sensible use of them? There were no real electronic computers at the time, ...
J Fabian Meier's user avatar
5 votes
4 answers
4k views

Is it possible to create an open-source SecurID?

As far as I understand it, the hardware key-fob two-factor systems such as RSA SecurID depend on secret algorithms, and employ tamper-resistant hardware to prevent reverse engineering. Is there some ...
John Cromartie's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
669 views

Are there any issues to doing 2 rounds of AES-128? How is the security compared to AES-256?

I have a SoC with hardware AES-128 encryption, which is obviously quite efficient in terms of power usage and memory used. However, we would like to have AES-256 encryption (half for commercial ...
user1532080's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

Methods of making ASIC/GPU resistant encryption?

Is there way to make encryption scheme ASIC and GPU resistant, besides using a lot of memory? And what is there ciphers or modes of use for such purpose? Including public keys algorithms maybe too, ...
catpnosis's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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Reverse engineering hardware crypto processor for modular multiplication

I'm currently working with an undocumented crypto offload processor that is capable of accelerating modular multiplication in some fashion. I need to figure out what operation it is implementing ...
Hendi's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
1k views

Any use for now-defunct Mt Gox Yubikey? [closed]

As everyone is now aware, Mt Gox has declared bankruptcy. As what appears to be the very last thing they did, Mt Gox accepted my $35 and fulfilled my special Mt Gox Yubikey. Having just arrived in the ...
quinndupont's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
266 views

How would we design a fast circuit to solve LCS35?

LCS35 is a time-lock puzzle, stated in Ronald L. Rivest's Description of the LCS35 Time Capsule Crypto-Puzzle [1] (April 1999). That instantiates a system in Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and David A. ...
fgrieu's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
3k views

AES s-box – How do I calculate the inverse of this field equation?

I want to implement AES algorithm,instead of LUT based S-box, but I’m stuck at point creating "Inverse of equation" during implementation. In creation of S-box I am using the following steps: ($...
Krishna Balupala's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
93 views

How many computations does it take to figure out the input if you know the function and you know its output to another known function?

I have no background in cryptography so excuse me if this question is a little basic or poorly defined. I'm trying to build a circuit using microcontrollers that implements a hash function of some ...
acbaum's user avatar
  • 51
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

Can cryptocurrency mining devices be used for cryptanalysis?

In the past year or so we have seen production of ASIC devices designed for mining of cryptocurrencies. These devices can perform SHA256 hashing at rates much higher than was seen in the past and are ...
JoelFan's user avatar
  • 295
5 votes
1 answer
225 views

Making attacks on password hashes less economical

Perhaps an abstract question on complexity given the trade offs between memory vs runtime, I was wondering if it's possible to constrain only either extremes approaches to be optimally efficient, thus ...
ruffsl's user avatar
  • 201
4 votes
2 answers
759 views

What is the security concept in printer cartridge?

Based on this datasheet or this patent, one of the usage of PUF is printer cartridge identification and authentication. I was wondering why printer cartridge needs identification and authentication. ...
Shannon's user avatar
  • 263
4 votes
3 answers
457 views

Most secure but feasible encryption running on WWII technology

Imagine you are transported back to ~1940. What is the best (i.e. most secure, but technologically feasible) encryption you can think of for widespread (i.e. military) use? How would you implement it?
3244611user's user avatar
4 votes
5 answers
3k views

How to roll my own hardware RNG?

I am considering building a hardware RNG myself using cheap parts. Is this a good idea and safe enough? Random sources: amplified Zener noise from one randomly chosen ...
Maxthon Chan's user avatar
4 votes
4 answers
1k views

Modifying an Enigma machine to allow unchanged letters

One of the biggest flaws of Enigma was that a letter couldn’t represent itself because the route through the machine was one-way. I was thinking a quick fix could be to introduce a rotor position that ...
Jesse Adam's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
231 views

Why EMI/EMC testing is necessary of Cryptographic Equipment?

In the Book, "Endpoint Security" Page 265, It includes Electromagnetic Interference / Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in Heading Level 1. Why is it necessary for Cryptographic Equipment to ...
crypt's user avatar
  • 2,449
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

Solving Quadratic equations in Galois Field (2^163)

Hello I am working on implementing a message to elliptic curve point mapping hardware circuit I have done some research and found out the koblitz mapping method: I will be using a field of binary ...
user3368764's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
314 views

Testing of PQC NIST round3 submissions

I am new to this field and have some concerns regarding PQC; How does NIST do a comparison that a particular algorithm is efficient and its security can not be broken by future quantum attacks? I am ...
Abdul Muneeb's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
348 views

What does "key version" refer to when talking about AES 128 in NXP's datasheet?

I'm going through the datasheet for MifareDesfire ICs. Throughout the document, there are mentions of "key version". For example, section 9.3 of the document states: Hardware AES using 128-...
Tung's user avatar
  • 143
4 votes
1 answer
313 views

Are there any good examples of Contemporary Mechanical Cryptography?

Are there secure mechanical cryptosystems in use today? Not necessarily alphabetic either, ie digital but mechanical?
Kinnard Hockenhull's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

Physical entropy source: How many bits entropy per byte is sufficent?

8 bit / byte would be perfect obviously. head -c 1M /dev/urandom | ent gives ~ 7.9998 bits per byte. Now, if I have a physical entropy source, how much entropy ...
curiosity's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
234 views

Are FPGAs faster than microcontrollers in cryptography?

So, for my capstone project, I've been working on a cryptographic algorithm accelerator on an FPGA. While it did get approved, I've been suggested to work on a more application-based idea that could ...
John T Doe's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
282 views

LED cryptography algorithm

I would like to better understand the operation of the LED algorithm, especially the process of substitution and permutation of the blocks and especially the use of the keys in each round. The keys ...
Raabe Noa's user avatar