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Questions tagged [cryptographic-hardware]

Cryptographic hardware enables the handling of cryptographic tasks and/or problems using hardware instead of software solutions.

61
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5answers
29k views

Technical feasibility of decrypting https by replacing the computer's PRNG

Intel has an on-chip RdRand function which supposedly bypasses the normally used entropy pool for /dev/urandom and directly injects output. Now rumors are going on that Intel works together with the ...
25
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5answers
7k views

Can a hard drive store clear text data that is physically impossible to retrieve?

I'm trying to study how HSM and TPM works when storing secret data in clear text. How can they achieve physical impossibility in retrieving secret data? I get the point in software, if you just have ...
16
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3answers
4k views

Webcam random number generator

I have a question about random number generators. I have read from a real random number generator, based on a webcam ("randcam"). My problem is, that I do not really understand how the generation of ...
15
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2answers
1k views

Is it possible to utilize an AES-128 encryption hardware unit for AES-256?

There exist processors (for example ARM v8/v9 archicteture based), which cannot do AES-256 hardware based, but are equipped with AES-128 encryption hardware units. Is it possible to utilize an AES-...
15
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1answer
2k views

AMD's implementation of RDRAND instruction

The latest AMD programmer manuals, dated June 2015, include the RDRAND instruction in the instruction set. For completeness, it lacks ...
12
votes
1answer
622 views

(EC)DSA signature without hashing, or with offloaded hash?

In (EC)DSA as per FIPS 186-4, the message to sign is first hashed. Imagine that we skip this hashing stage, instead put the message where the hash was, and constrain the size of message $h$ to the ...
11
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2answers
4k views

Does using modulo (%) affect quality of randomness?

I'm writing a small script that generates random non-signed decimal integers within a certain range of values. I'm using GNU od, with the following command: ...
11
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2answers
2k views

Different ways/algorithms for implementing AES

I have seen a couple software implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard. They are pretty much straight forward, i.e. they are implemented exactly the same way as the AES is described. This ...
11
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2answers
843 views

Is CPU timing jitter a usable entropy source?

In some virtualized environments, the only source of entropy available is CPU timing jitter. Can one get enough entropy from this source for practical uses? Also, is this secure against local side-...
11
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1answer
320 views

How to tell if a hardware RNG is rigged?

On a related note of building my own RNG, as someone suggested to use several commericial solutions how can I check if it is rigged against me? (although I am still strongly biased to a homebrew ...
10
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3answers
2k views

HRNG for One Time Pad

I have just advanced to the last grade of high school (in Denmark). In this year, we all get to do one big project, where we can build/invent/create whatever we want to "solve a problem". As I study ...
10
votes
3answers
461 views

Is there an algorithm or hardware that can sign/verify natural time?

PGP/GPG can used to sign text, others use public key to verify them. So one could say, that these cryptographic algorithms deal with space. Are there any algorithms that can deal with time? E.g. I ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Hardware AES: can we have a decryption implementation only?

I'm wondering if implementing only the AES decryption can reduce the hardware cost? And does anybody have some examples of the cost (speed, size) of hardware AES implementation? Thanks, Abaobaide
8
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2answers
5k views

Difference between Hardware implemented algorithm and software implemented one?

In the articles about cryptography I see the words Hardware implemented and Software implemented. I'm curious to know what is the difference between them? In the other words, even in the computer ...
8
votes
1answer
320 views

How relevant are hardware implementations of crypto algorithms?

All of the SHA-3 finalists discussed speed and efficiency of a hardware implementation of their algorithms. How relevant are such details? I'm curious about who commercializes hardware that ...
8
votes
2answers
4k views

Accelerating SHA-1

I have a program where computing SHA-1 is the bottleneck. This is using OpenSSL 1.0.0e on a 2.6Ghz 16-core Opteron where I get about 325MiB/s throughput. (SHA1 here is via Andy Polyakov's x86-64 ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Is ChaCha20 safer than AES with respect to side-channel attacks?

I've already seen some topics on this matter, but I feel like my question hasn't really been answered. Given the following: AES must be implemented in hardware (i.e. using the AES-NI instruction set)...
8
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3answers
1k views

Usage difference between x86 RDRAND and RDSEED

Modern x86 CPUs often have the RDRAND and RDSEED instructions for hardware generation of random numbers. I just don't understand the difference between them. Intel has this document: https://...
7
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2answers
575 views

Customizable Crypto Algorithms in Hardware

Several companies offer customized cryptographic algorithms, for example Crypto AG (www.crypto.ch/en/company): The individually created customer algorithms are unknown to anyone else and are not ...
7
votes
1answer
310 views

Are coprocessors (Intel Phi) a threat for modern key stretching functions?

Modern key stretching functions (password-based key derivation functions, also used for password hashing) are memory-hard to mitigate parallel attacks, and as far as I know this is working well. Last ...
6
votes
3answers
924 views

Is there a cryptographic algorithm which is immune to side channel attacks?

Is there any cryptographic algorithm immune to side channel attacks based on scan chain? In VLSI point of view.
6
votes
1answer
2k views

What is a smart card?

In many cryptographic protocols, some information is transmitted within smart cards. So, what is a smart card? Is it a physical card? What are they used for in cryptographic protocols?
6
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2answers
272 views

How long does it take to extract a key from a FIPS-140 Level 2 device?

How long does it take to extract a key from a FIPS-140 Level 2 device? What records are there of successful extraction? How much did the first extraction from a given device cost? How much would a ...
6
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1answer
150 views

How would we design a fast circuit to solve LCS35?

LCS35 is a time-lock puzzle, stated in Ronald L. Rivest's Description of the LCS35 Time Capsule Crypto-Puzzle [1] (April 1999). That instantiates a system in Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and David A. ...
5
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3answers
842 views

What are the dangers of using CPU clock drift for generating random data?

From what I understand, a physical source of true randomness could be achieved with a multi-core processor, by using clock drift between two or more cores. However, a processor is easier to ...
5
votes
4answers
3k views

Is it possible to create an open-source SecurID?

As far as I understand it, the hardware key-fob two-factor systems such as RSA SecurID depend on secret algorithms, and employ tamper-resistant hardware to prevent reverse engineering. Is there some ...
5
votes
1answer
921 views

Any use for now-defunct Mt Gox Yubikey? [closed]

As everyone is now aware, Mt Gox has declared bankruptcy. As what appears to be the very last thing they did, Mt Gox accepted my $35 and fulfilled my special Mt Gox Yubikey. Having just arrived in the ...
5
votes
1answer
860 views

AES s-box – How do I calculate the inverse of this field equation?

I want to implement AES algorithm,instead of LUT based S-box, but I’m stuck at point creating "Inverse of equation" during implementation. In creation of S-box I am using the following steps: ($...
5
votes
2answers
70 views

How many computations does it take to figure out the input if you know the function and you know its output to another known function?

I have no background in cryptography so excuse me if this question is a little basic or poorly defined. I'm trying to build a circuit using microcontrollers that implements a hash function of some ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Can cryptocurrency mining devices be used for cryptanalysis?

In the past year or so we have seen production of ASIC devices designed for mining of cryptocurrencies. These devices can perform SHA256 hashing at rates much higher than was seen in the past and are ...
5
votes
1answer
141 views

Making attacks on password hashes less economical

Perhaps an abstract question on complexity given the trade offs between memory vs runtime, I was wondering if it's possible to constrain only either extremes approaches to be optimally efficient, thus ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Methods of making ASIC/GPU resistant encryption?

Is there way to make encryption scheme ASIC and GPU resistant, besides using a lot of memory? And what is there ciphers or modes of use for such purpose? Including public keys algorithms maybe too, ...
4
votes
2answers
333 views

HSM RNG - Compliance to FIPS 186-2

If the RNG of a HSM is said to be compliant to FIPS 140-2 (approved DRBG - SP 800-90 CTR mode) does also imply that it is compliant to FIPS 186-2 ?
4
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3answers
138 views

Modifying an Enigma machine to allow unchanged letters

One of the biggest flaws of Enigma was that a letter couldn’t represent itself because the route through the machine was one-way. I was thinking a quick fix could be to introduce a rotor position that ...
4
votes
1answer
178 views

How is the inter and the intra distance of a PUF calculated?

I was wondering, if I want to calculate the intra distance of a PUF, and I have already measured $n$ times a response to a challenge. Do I choose one reference value and compare the hamming distance ...
4
votes
0answers
103 views

When to chose hardware accelerated crypto for Big Data

if you were to recommend a cipher/mode configuration that emphasizes performance for your customers, would you recommend a hardware based accelerated solution over one that isn't? For big data at rest/...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Can AES-NI be used to accelerate asymmetric encryption?

AES-NI optimized processors can be used to accelerate AES, which is a symmetric crypto. Can it also be used to accelerate asymmetric crypto?
3
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2answers
834 views

Physical entropy source: How many bits entropy per byte is sufficent?

8 bit / byte would be perfect obviously. head -c 1M /dev/urandom | ent gives ~ 7.9998 bits per byte. Now, if I have a physical entropy source, how much entropy ...
3
votes
5answers
2k views

How to roll my own hardware RNG?

I am considering building a hardware RNG myself using cheap parts. Is this a good idea and safe enough? Random sources: amplified Zener noise from one randomly chosen ...
3
votes
2answers
102 views

What is the security concept in printer cartridge?

Based on this datasheet or this patent, one of the usage of PUF is printer cartridge identification and authentication. I was wondering why printer cartridge needs identification and authentication. ...
3
votes
2answers
131 views

Why EMI/EMC testing is necessary of Cryptographic Equipment?

In the Book, "Endpoint Security" Page 265, It includes Electromagnetic Interference / Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in Heading Level 1. Why is it necessary for Cryptographic Equipment to ...
3
votes
1answer
646 views

Hardware random number generator for lottery?

To be able to generate random numbers for lottery games, we have the following requirement: The random number generator, which uses the deterministic algorithm to determine the game result, has to ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Learning cryptography using a FPGA

I have a FPGA and am curious what cryptographic applications I can use with it. I'm just a hobbyist / security researcher and not a professional cryptographer. Since I'm creating my own curriculum, ...
3
votes
1answer
194 views

LED cryptography algorithm

I would like to better understand the operation of the LED algorithm, especially the process of substitution and permutation of the blocks and especially the use of the keys in each round. The keys ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Solving Quadratic equations in Galois Field (2^163)

Hello I am working on implementing a message to elliptic curve point mapping hardware circuit I have done some research and found out the koblitz mapping method: I will be using a field of binary ...
3
votes
1answer
282 views

Are there any good examples of Contemporary Mechanical Cryptography?

Are there secure mechanical cryptosystems in use today? Not necessarily alphabetic either, ie digital but mechanical?
3
votes
1answer
214 views

RSA hybrid decryption via PKCS#11 - unwrap or decrypt?

I have an application that does RSA hybrid encryption/decryption – i.e., messages are encrypted with a fresh AES key, which is then itself encrypted with RSA-OAEP and sent with the message. Decryption ...
3
votes
0answers
515 views

Implementation specific differences between RDRAND and RDSEED

I've read Intel's The Difference Between RDRAND and RDSEED and Intel Digital Random Number Generator (DRNG) Software Implementation Guide, but I have some open questions that are specific to usage in ...
2
votes
2answers
199 views

Why is it that researchers prefer finding secure software solutions over secure hardware solutions?

My understanding is crypto researchers tend to prefer solving a problem in software without the need for secure hardware. Why is this? What is the big problem with using secure hardware if the ...
2
votes
2answers
449 views

Why do 1st and 3rd key have to be the same in 2 key 3DES?

From this answer: However, that wasn't the only situation they had in mind; they also considered the case where someone implemented 2 key 3DES in hardware (which the first and last subkeys were ...