Questions tagged [des]

(or Data Encryption Standard), a (symmetric) block cipher using a 64 bit block size, with keys of size 56 bit, the standard US block cipher from 1976 to 2001.

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1answer
3k views

Duration for attacking Two-Key Triple-DES Encryption using all RAM ever built?

I am considering attacks on Two-Key Triple-DES Encryption assuming $2^{32}$ known plaintext/ciphertext pairs (that's a mere 32MiB of ciphertext) by the method devised by Paul C. van Oorschot and ...
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1answer
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Why do we use encrypt-decrypt-encrypt (EDE) in 3DES, rather than encrypting three times?

I'm wondering why we use encrypt-decrypt-encrypt (EDE) sequence in 3DES (also known as DES-EDE, TDES or TDEA) with three keys instead of three times encryption (EEE) with three different keys?
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1answer
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Why is triple-DES using three different keys vulnerable to a meet-in-the-middle-attack?

Among other sources, this wikipedia entry states that triple DES using three seperate keys (k1, k2, k3) is vulnerable to meet-in-the-middle-attacks, while triple DES using only two keys (k1, k2, k1) ...
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4answers
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Can I find the encryption key if I know the plain text and the encrypted text (DES and AES)?

If I have the plain text and its output after encryption with a key K1, is it algorithmically feasible to find K1? I am specifically interested in the cases of DES and AES encryption algorithms.
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What are the benefits of the two permutation tables in DES?

Why do we use a permutation table in the first step of DES algorithm and one at the end of the algorithm?
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10k views

Why is MixColumns omitted from the last round of AES?

All rounds of AES (and Rijndael) have a MixColumns step, save the last round which omits it. DES has a similar feature where the last round differs slightly. The rationale, if I recall correctly, ...
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Purpose of DES parity bits

DES has a 64-bit key size, but only 56 of those are used during encryption. The other 8 are "parity bits". What was the intended purpose of the party bits, and why are they no longer used in modern ...
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DES — Can I recover the key when I have both ciphertext and the plaintext?

Given a message and DES encrypted form of said message, is it possible to efficiently compute the key used to encrypt the data?
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18k views

Can you explain “weak keys” for DES?

A weak key for DES is a key $K$ such that $DES_{k_1}(DES_{k_2}(x))=x$ for all $x$. I don't get why are the 4 keys $k_1||k_2$: $1^{112}$, $0^{112}$, $0^{56}||1^{56}$, $1^{56}||0^{56}$ considered as ...
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DES with the bitwise complement of a key

I was reading upon Biham and Shamir's paper and a fact has been presented over there: if $ P_1 = \bar P_2$ and I choose a key $K_1 = \bar K_2$ then in that case $$T_1 = DES(P_1, K_1)$$ $$T_2 = DES(...
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1answer
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DES Key Schedule Algorithm

Reading through the DES Specification it says that the keys are permuted with PC-1 initially and then shifted left both $C$ and $D$. However, before it gets ...
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How were the DES S-box values determined?

It seems like the S-boxes in DES have essentially random values. How were these chosen?
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1answer
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Is DES secure under CBC?

I know DES is outdated, but will is is secure in CBC mode? Can anyone help me understand why not?
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25k views

Is Triple DES still considered safe to use?

What it says on the tin. Is it still used in things like TLS?
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3answers
27k views

How long does it take to crack DES and AES?

Suppose that a single evaluation of a block-cipher (DES or AES) takes 10 operations, and the computer can do $10^{15}$ such operations per second. How long would it take for to recover a DES key, ...
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1answer
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Why is double encryption that's equivalent to single encryption no better than single encryption?

In the "Introduction to Cryptography: With Coding Theory" by Trappe and Washington, in the chapter about DES algorithm the authors say that: "if a cryptosystem is such that double encryption is ...
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2answers
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Attacking 2DES efficiently

Meet in the middle on 2DES uses $2^{56}$ memory. Given the fact that the attacker has only $2^{45}$ memory. How can the attacker adjust the attack so even with this memory limit, it will still be more ...
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Meet-in-the-middle with checking complexity

In regards to meet in the middle type attacks, I have been considering the amount of operations in order to successfully find a key given two sets of plaintext / ciphertext pairs. All of the sources I ...
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1answer
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Brute force attack on DES + property of DES

In a brute force attack on DES, it seems to me that one plaintext-ciphertext pair suffices to launch the attack. (I.e. suppose we are given a message $x$ and a ciphertext $c$ such that $DES_k ( x ) = ...
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1answer
7k views

What are the details of the DES weakness of reusing the same IV in CBC mode with the same key?

I think I once faced the recommendation, that the initialization vector should always be random and never be used twice with the same key. How serious is this weakness? Also, is AES less effected ...
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Rainbow table for DES with all-zero plaintext?

Consider the function $F$ from $\{0,1\}^{56}$ to $\{0,1\}^{64}$, mapping the operative bits of a DES key to the ciphertext for all-zero plaintext. How could we organize a rainbow table to invert that ...
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1answer
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How does DES decryption work? Is it the same as encryption or the reverse? [duplicate]

If DES decryption is the same as encryption done in reverse order, then how can the reversed S-Box convert 4 bits into 6 bits?
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1answer
323 views

Does the key schedule function need to be a one-way function?

For some key schedule $e_n(e_{n-1}(k))$ (where $e_{n-1}(k)$ is the result of the previous round) , does $e$ need to be a one-way function? In the case of DES or Rijndael the key schedule doesn't ...
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DES-X , computation load and storage

The passage said that the computational load to attack DES-X can be reduced to approximately $2^{(56+64)}=2^{120}$ steps,and the storage of data sets should be $2^{64}$. But I can't figure why it is ...
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1answer
358 views

How to find fixed points for DES weak keys

Can someone explain me this please I am a bit confused? It's from a texbook I am reading (block cipher companion) it says that: each weak key has $2^{32}$ fixed points $m$ where $\operatorname{...
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1answer
965 views

In the RSA DES challenges, how did the contestants know they had found the right key considering they weren't given any plaintext?

If the contestants were given both the plaintext and ciphertext, it's straightforward. Just bruteforce all 56-bit keys until you find one that maps the given plaintext to the given ciphertext. But ...
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1answer
2k views

Why no swapping block in the last round of DES?

Round 16 on the encryption side, and round 16 on the decryption side of DES have no swapping module. Why is it like this? Can anyone provide any justification? This is my homework question.
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1answer
641 views

DES: how does Richard Outerbridge's Initial Permutation operate?

I know how initial permutation works, but I've never heard of this part. People say it's Richard Outerbridge's initial permutation and that it's faster than usual IP (initial permutation) and simple. ...
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3answers
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Is DES slow in hardware or only in software?

I have been reading that DES is slow. Is it only slow in software or slow overall? Also, as far as Triple DES being slow is concerned, is double AES with two 128 bit keys slower than single AES with ...
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AES and DES - reusing the same round keys

Both DES and AES use key expansion to generate the round keys (for Feistel network or for the AddRoundKey operation). Each round uses a different key. Why do we need that? Why we cannot use the same ...
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1answer
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How does ROTL work?

what does ROTL stand for? I know it does left shifting but what about the acronym? When we do a left shift, do we take the leftmost bit and add it at the end, by making the second bit the first, and ...
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1answer
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Symmetric encryption construction (meet-in-the-middle attack)

This is a question I had from an exercise session. First we do DES in CBC encryption mode using a key $K_1$ and $IV_1 = O^n$. Then we do DES in ECB decryption mode using $K_1$. And then DES in CBC ...
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Can neural cryptanalysis be applied to AES?

In this Wikipedia article about Neural cryptography (section applications) it states: In 1995, Sebastien Dourlens applied neural networks to cryptanalyze DES by allowing the networks to learn how ...
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1answer
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Complement property of DES

I'm supposed to show the complement property of DES ($c=DES(p,k) => \bar c = DES(\bar p, \bar k)$). My idea was to just start the algorithm with $\bar p$ and see what happens (ignoring the initial ...
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S-box basic question

I'm trying to understand DES and a bunch of other cryptographic systems using S-Boxes. I have now a quite basic question about how Sboxes work in general. For DES, Sboxes are substituting a 6-bits ...
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What is an active S-Box?

I don't understand what an active s-box is (in reference of design criteria 8 of the DES). Because according to DES, all 8 s-boxes are used every round. But this is not what active means. So my ...
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2answers
780 views

Feistel-Network - why wire crossing?

In Feistel-Network, there would be a wire-crossing at the end (for the next round). Which insufficiency would occur, if the wire crossing would be omitted?
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1answer
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Why does applying 56-bit DES twice only give 57 bits of security? [duplicate]

Given two 56-bit keys, $k_1$ and $k_2$, why does $E_{k_1}(E_{k_2}(M))$ only give 57 bits of security? So basically I'm unsure why it only gives 57 bits of security; I understand that one key will ...
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What is the keyspace of 2-key 3DES?

I am assuming that 2-key 3DES is equivalent to 2DES. I know the key size is 2x56 = 112 bits. Is this key size the same as the keyspace? e.g. Would the keyspace be 112 bits ($2^{112}$)?
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1answer
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Regarding matsui's Paper on Linear Cryptanalysis of DES

I am going through the the Paper by Matsui on Linear Cryptanalysis of DES. In that, he says $NS_{5}(16,15)=12$ And then in the next paragraph he says considering the expansion and permutation phases ...
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64 DES full example with all the stages

I'm trying to write a code to perform encryption and decryption of 64-bit DES but I'm having a problem in verifying that my code is working correctly. My graduation project is about DES crypt-analysis ...
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1answer
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Why does the DES crypto algorithm NOT use 2 rounds?

Now, if we were to go round by round, you could give a distinct reason for not using a single round since after just one round, the right half of the text comes directly, as-is, to form the left half ...
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what is the current actual budget - as of 2015 - needed to build a DES breaker machine?

EFF - Electronic Frontier Foundation - built a DES cracker for a budget of 250K$ in July 1998. I assume that as of 2015 - the cost of such a DES breaker would be less, are there any estimations about ...
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How do we prove that AES, DES etc. are secure?

How do we prove that AES, DES etc. are secure? I've read about them and know the basics on how they work, but I still don't quite understand how we can be sure they are secure? What are the proofs?
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Why DES s-box non-linear? Why it makes the cracking of the cypher more difficult?

I know that if we have a cypher which makes only linear transformations (let's say a bunch of $XOR$'s), we break it simply writing a system of equations with $\oplus$ operation starting from the ...
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Increasing number of rounds in AES

AES-128 requires 10 rounds ( AES Description, Wikipedia ) However Bruce Schneier has recommended AES-128 use 16 rounds ( Schneier on Security: New Attack on AES ) Could that be implemented as two ...
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1answer
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Are pseudorandom permutation really permutation in mathematical sense?

In security, and specifically Block Cipher (AES, DES, etc), when we talk about pseudo random permutations, is the term "permutation" refer to the same meaning as in discrete mathematics. That is, the ...
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How many reversible gates would DES require?

How many reversible gates (said counting Toffoli and Controlled NOT, with free NOT) would be required to reversibly implement $(K,P)\mapsto(G,C)$ for the block cipher DES? $P$ is the plaintext, $C$ ...
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3answers
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How was PC2 designed?

I am trying to understand DES. Can anyone explain the table given in one of the answer DES Key Schedule Algorithm. My question is from where the first entry of Ks comes from. i.e ...
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2answers
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DES generating the same ciphertext for different plaintexts and identical key

Is it possible to get the same output for DES while the inputs are different while using the same key? The key should not have to be a weak key. If yes could you give me a hint how to show how to do ...