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The Diffie–Hellman key agreement is an anonymous, non-authenticated key-agreement protocol.

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What am I doing wrong with this Diffie - Hellman Key generation?

I am currently trying to diffie hellman Problem. I cant figure out what I am doing wrong as the md5 hash is not being accepted into any online aes decrypter. You recieved an important message from ...
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1answer
62 views

How Elliptic-Curve affects the Server Key Exchange parameters

In Finite Field DHE, the server sends the following parameters in the server key exchange message: $p$: prime $g$: group $g^b$: the server's public DH key In DHE_RSA (non anonymous DHE), the server ...
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How to use a retrieved Fixed DH shared key with wireshark? [closed]

I have a .pcap file from a communication recorded from A to B. The communication is encrypted and Fixed DH was used to establish a shared secret. The parameters g and p were chosen such that an ...
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1answer
72 views

Does this scheme break under a DHP adversary?

Consider the following cryptography scheme: We are given a prime $p$. Alice wants to send the plaintext $m \pmod p$ to Bob. Alice chooses $a$ s.t. $\text{gcd}(a,p-1)=1$, and sends Bob, $u = m^a \...
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15 views

Why is Bob's identity key needed in X3DH?

From X3DH specification, when Alice sends Bob a message DH1 = DH(IKA, SPKB) DH2 = DH(EKA, IKB) DH3 = DH(EKA, SPKB) SK = KDF(DH1 || DH2 || DH3) Why is DH2 ...
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1answer
73 views

Restoring a point on an elliptic curve

I received a representation of a point on an elliptic curve $GF(2^m)$ (with curve coefficient A, B) in specific format and some description how to decode it but not all is clear to me. I would be ...
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1answer
46 views

How to calculate Trace function for a point on an elliptic curve

I encountered trouble with calculating Tr (trace function) for points on an elliptic curve in polynomial basis ( $GF(2^m), m = 431$). Maybe there are any assumptions that can simplify and allow ...
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1answer
69 views

Signal Protocol: What extra features does double ratchet algorithm add to Diffie-Hellman ratchet?

I have been reading the documentation of Signal protocol and could not find out why they came up with double ratchet instead of using Diffie-Hellman ratchet which was available at first place in OTR?
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69 views

Please help me to solve this question

Alice and Bob want to establish a common key pair using the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol and then use it in to send each other messages using a symmetric cipher. They agree by email on a prime ...
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1answer
55 views

Tls protocols: is the simple diffie hellman key exchange still used these days?

Or did it mostly get replaced by ecdh for key exchange and rsa for authentication ?
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2answers
93 views

Point of Diffie-Hellman key exchange when public keys are known [duplicate]

Since the basic version of Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol is vulnerable to Man In The Middle Attack, some sort of authentication is needed. It was mentioned that RSA digital signature can be ...
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37 views

Is my way safe to remove SSL CA Cert by DHT and PoW NodeID for a decentralized system?

To implement a decentralized system, I wrote a TLS like P2P net stack. The main idea is removing CA Cert from the whole system by using a DHT for Naming and Key Exchange. I am not a crypto expert, so ...
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56 views

Broadcasting a message with multiple sub-messages encrypted for different recipients

I'm looking for an encryption scheme that can be used in a P2P system were broadcasting of messages is used to propagate these to all participants. A participant would create a single/large message, ...
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2answers
68 views

Multiparty key exchange for end-to-end encryption

I need to make end-to-end encrypted messaging between 2 and more parties without trusting a server. Each party has it's secret and private keys. The obvious solution is to make ECDH between all of ...
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1answer
26 views

Question About ECC Primitives (GnuPG)

In version 2.1, GnuPG featured primitives that use elliptic curves. For encryption, one option was ECDH, which confused me. I thought ECDH was for key agreement, not public key encryption. How does ...
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2answers
53 views

Why would Diffie-Hellman Group 21 be 521 bits rather than 512?

Diffie-Hellman groups tend to increment in key sizes as you'd expect up until group 21. Any idea why the key size is 521 rather than 512? I haven't been able to find an answer at all.
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1answer
55 views

Is this problem still as hard as discrete logarithm (modified ElGamal)?

I am trying to find a vulnerability or proof for the following problem: ElGamal part. Given $g\in\mathbb Z_p$ where $g$ generates $\mathbb Z_p^\star$, select randomly $k\in\mathbb Z_p$ and calculate ...
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37 views

How computationally heavy these algorithms?

I want to use Signal protocol to encrypt sensors data. As we know sensors have limited memory, CPU power, and battery. And Signal protocol has the following processes: Encryption: AES in CBC mode and ...
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Multi-Party Offline Key Exchange Using Public and Private Keys

I hope the title already explains the problem I have in mind; but let me lay out some more details. Given public-private key pairs $P_A, P_B, P_C, ... P_Z$, (first $3$ of which are owned by our usual ...
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43 views

How to see Diffie Hellman private key used during negotiation? [closed]

I used OpenSSL s_client to connect to a test server. Because OpenSSL generated client side private DH key, I think there will be a way to show the private key or ...
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1answer
41 views

What are the differences between ephemeral-static ECDH and static-static ECDH?

As I know ECDH can be used with a fixed public key. I read there are two types of static ECDH, ephemeral-static ECDH, and static-static ECDH. What are the differences between these two types?
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powers of g in $GF(256)$

The finite field $GF(256)$ is usually implemented $mod$ 0x11b to keep the numbers inside that field. I understand that 0x11b was ...
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1answer
59 views

How do i generate the shared key from this question?

Say I have Alice and Bob: Alice has $XA$, $YA = g^{XA} \bmod P$, $RA$ (random number) Bob has $XB$, $YB = g^{XB} \bmod P$, $RB$ (random number) Assume they have exchanged their certificates and ...
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50 views

How many qbits are required to break Diffie-Hellman over a multiplicative group

There have been comparisons between RSA and ECDH with regards to the number of qbits (qubits) required to break the algorithm with a specific key size. But how many qbits are required to break "...
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44 views

Good Diffie Hellman Encryption Method

I've just made my own implementation of Diffie Hellman in nodejs (its for a project of mine). However the shared keys are integers, I want to use those integers as a key to encrypt data. This is an ...
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2answers
189 views

AES and ECDH key

I am trying to understand public key encryption. I found the table below in a paper online. I am struggling to understand the meaning of this. From the bits and pieces read, I am tempted to think that ...
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45 views

Securing MQTT communication

I am building kinda simple IoT project, but I would like to implement good security (just for educational purposes and fun). My plan is to build simple solution where one arduino board reads some data ...
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93 views

ECC Curve25519: How to generate this kind of private key? / Strange key exchange mechanism

I'm currently reverse engineering a program that uses Curve25519 key exchange in network communication. I have only a basic understanding of ECC, so maybe this thing just seems strange to me. The ...
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1answer
98 views

The compression of the eliptic curve point coordinates

Some time ago I faced the problem of the unexpected format compression of the points on elliptic curve. I used ECDH procedure with a third party service on the base of the $\mathbb({F}_{2^m})$ curve ...
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1answer
35 views

Diffie Hellman Key Exchange Security wrt the hardness of discrete Logarithm

Hi I am very new to this field and I was wondering how one would prove or disprove the following statements: 1) if the DH key exchange protocol is secure for a finite cyclic group G, then computing ...
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24 views

GPG encrypt performance degradence for thousands receipients

I plan to use GPG to encrypt a small file (32KB) for very many recipient public keys (few thousands). I tested GPG with RSA and then ECDH public key encryptions. If RSA is very slow, with ECDH (nist ...
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119 views

Are there benefits for using Static Diffie-Hellman over Ephemeral Diffie-Hellman?

TL;DR - Are there any benefits to using static DH over ephemeral DH? I'm reading about the differences between static DH & ephemeral DH and I am trying to think of one logical reason to use ...
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38 views

What protocols are secure under computational and decisional diffie hellman assumption respectively?

I am new to crypto, and I have read the definitions of Computational Diffie-Hellman(CDH) and Decisional Diffie-Hellman(DDH) assumption, though I tried to figure out the differences between the two ...
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1answer
132 views

Finding missing bits mathematicaly in a DLP situation (full problem)

In a preparatory question we had to recover decimal digits $@$ of $r$ and $s$ given $g=51234$, $h=90403$, $N=111649$, $r=3@497$, $s=276@3$, with $r$ and $s$ the smallest positive solutions to $g^r\...
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1answer
97 views

Finding missing bits mathematicaly in a DLP situation

Here is a DLP exercice $g = 51234,\; h = 90403 ,\; N = 311 \cdot 359 = 111649$. Define $r$ as the smallest positive integer with $g^r \equiv h \pmod N$. Define $s$ as the smallest positive integer ...
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1answer
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Differences between ECIES and DHIES

I'm studying the Integrated Encryption Scheme and I did't understand which are the main differences between ECIES and DHIES. Can someone help me ? Thank you in advance.
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72 views

Breaking a small-scale Example Diffie-Hellman?

I started to read about Diffie-Hellman exchange and I encountered a problem which I don't know how to solve. Given $g=3$, $p=131$, $g^x\bmod p=112$, $g^y\bmod p=74$, compute $g^{xy}\bmod p$ $113$ $...
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ECDH over secp256k1 implementation

I'm using ECDH over secp256k1 in multiple languages, and I saw something a little weird in the rust library I use. After the point multiplication it changes y to <...
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1answer
63 views

Anything known about this variation of Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol?

I'm considering a variation of the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol based on integer modular multiplication in place of exponentiation. If done naively, that would obviously be insecure, but I'm ...
2
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1answer
61 views

Understanding the q-SDH Problem (on elliptic curves)

I have some troubles in understanding the q-SDH problem. The discrete logarithm problem states the following. Given a point P of order on an elliptic curve and a point Q on the same curve. It is hard ...
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55 views

Where do the PKs come from in Bluetooth device?

I am studying the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) on Bluetooth 4.2. There are some questions about the PK.. Where do these public and private keys come from? Who defines them? and Will it ...
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1answer
68 views

prove PRG is secure assuming DDH holds

Let $\Bbb{G}$ be a cyclic group of prime order $q$ generated by $g \in G$. Let $G$ be a PRG defined over $(\Bbb{Z}_q^2, \Bbb{G}^3)$ such that: $G(a, b) = (g^{a}, g^{b}, g^{ab})$ How can I show ...
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2answers
115 views

Questions about the double ratchet mechanism in Signal

I am trying to understand the threats the double ratchet system is trying to prevent against. The threats mentioned in the paper do not quite make sense to me. May be someone can explain where I am ...
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2answers
115 views

Does Diffie Hellman guarantee secrecy?

I am studying my Cryptology exam and one question I got stuck below; Recall the Diffie-Hellman key establishment protocol. Alice runs this protocol over the Internet to communicate with Bob. ...
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1answer
912 views

After ECDH with Curve25519, is it pointless to use anything stronger than AES128?

Is the following reasoning correct: After ECDH with Curve25519, the resulting shared secret will be an EC public key with a bit strength of 128 bits. This public key would then be hashed (let's say ...
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1answer
84 views

About DDH over cyclic group Z*p^2

To construct a secure multiparty computation function, we need to use the cyclic group G = Z*p^2 with p is a large prime. However, we are uncertain that DDH holds over this group. Can you show that ...
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Let $ALG_2$ be an algorithm that solves the RSA problem, can it solve the generalized Diffie-Hellman problem?

Let $ALG_2$ be an algorithm that solves the RSA problem for all $e\in \mathbb{Z}_n^*$ i.e given $e,m^e,n$ then $ALG_2(e,m^e,n)=m$. Is it possible to use this algorithm to solve the generalized Diffie-...
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Encrypt using ECDH with two different EC public keys, minimizing payload size

Let's say Alice has the private EC keys $a$ and $b$, with a base point of prime order $G$. Alice computes the corresponding public keys $A = aG$ and $B = bG$, and sends them to Bob. Bob now wants to ...
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2answers
123 views

Why is RSA preferred over Diffie-Hellman if they're both used to establish shared key?

I've read that the RSA algorithm is preferred over Diffie-Hellman key exchange as it makes key management easier. In the context of online banking, before the RSA algorithm they would have to maintain ...
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1answer
50 views

Lightweight primality certificates for untrusted DH parameters

Are there any light-weight techniques to generate primality certificates for custom Diffie-Hellman parameters that could be sent to the client to allow it to verify primality without needing to run ...