Questions tagged [diffie-hellman]

The Diffie–Hellman key agreement is an anonymous, non-authenticated key-agreement protocol.

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Diffie–Hellman key exchange, why it's hard to break it?

I'm a bit confused why it's hard to break Diffie–Hellman Let's take the example ALICE has G, a, and n BOB had G, b and n Eve ...
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Trying to decrypt saml2:EncryptedAssertion (in .NET) [migrated]

I'm trying to decrypt EncryptedAssertion data (SAML) in .NET Framework: ...
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ECDH Public Key Recovery - Determine if valid key exists from just signature and message

If I have just the (r,s,v) values of the signature and the message hash, what is the most efficient way to determine if a valid public key exists? I do not need to know the public key, just that the ...
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List of big strong primes

I want to make a Diffie Hellman key exchange code using Python, but I'm afraid of just randomly picking $g$. I read on the answer of Thomas Pornin to this question How does one calculate a primitive ...
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Computing modular squares and square roots of the form $n=pq$ with large $p$ and $q$

If I was given $n=pq$, where $p$ and $q$ are large primes (eg: $2^{61}-1$ and $2^{89}-1$), and I was given $t=w^2=c (\bmod(n))$, where $c$ is already given. How do I find the square root function $w=\...
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How to reduce Computational Diffie–Hellman problem and Decisional Diffie–Hellman problem to Discrete logarithm problem

I'm supposed make some reductions but don't even know where to start. Any help would or explanation on how to do this would be much appreciated.
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Standards for finite-field discrete log cryptography

The NIST and TLS standards for Diffie-Hellman key exchange over a finite field all work in a subgroup of ${\mathbb Z}_p^*$ having prime order $q$, where $p = 2q+1$. On the other hand, DSA has a larger ...
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DHE parameters: which parameters need to be random each time?

In DH key exchange, first, both parties need to agree on a generator $g$ and prime $p$. After that each party computes its key (party A: $g^a \bmod p$) and (party B: $g^b \bmod p$), then they exchange ...
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ECDH, x25519 and limitations for securing client-certificates on the server

g'day Crypto.SE I'm working on a practical application of sharing a static key to better-identify a user, between the recipient (server) and the initiator (client ie. user's machine). My core ...
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Prime computation for Diffie Hellman

While reading some cryptographic RFCs, came across the Diffie Hellman prime computation formula: 2^1024 - 2^960 - 1 + 2^64 * { [2^894 pi] + 129093 } I am curious what the expression [2^894 pi] means ...
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Using Diffie–Hellman without a key derivation function

In an answer to another question, it was suggested that the shared secret derived from Diffie–Hellman key exchange could then be used directly as a one-time pad to encrypt a message (by XORing the ...
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A doubt about Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

I have a doubt about the Diffie-Hellman problem: Is it possible to send a message to someone using only the Diffie–Hellman key exchange? Since it's called a key exchange can you only make a key?
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Interactive ECDHE Authentication With Numeric Code

Trying to simplify my question, keeping only core concepts. Proposed solution: Both user devices generates ECDHE key pairs. Send pub keys to each other. Generate shared secret. Device that requests ...
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find prime number of diffie-hellman algorithm

at IPsec, Diffie-hellman is used in framework ISAKMP resulting shared secret. some of Diffie-Hellman group may define the length of the prime number of q and the size of the secret key of K: group 1 (...
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(How) Is DDH generally broken in groups of composite order?

In a somewhat recent lecture a claim was made that I couldn't back up myself but it got me curious whether it actually holds: If the order of the group is not prime, then the DDH assumption does ...
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Is there an actually an alternative to using Diffie Hellman in TLS handshake?

After looking into how TLS handshaking works it seems to inherently include the Diffie Hellman algorithm during the point where they generate a shared secret key. However as I look into this some ...
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For Diffie-Hellman, why is a g value of p−1 not a suitable choice?

I am currently learning about the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. I understand that for a $g$ of $1$, the resulting key would always end up as $1$ which would obviously not be secure. I read that the $p\...
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Diffie-Hellman in Https: How are prime numbers picked?

I am trying to understand https, as I understand https uses the Diffie–Hellman method for keys exchange and then AES for encryption. But Diffie–Hellman needs two prime numbers, where do these come ...
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Trying to understand how the same secret key end up being calculated between Alice and Bob

This is basically a duplicate of this question which was not answered very clearly. From the documentation, these are the calculations that happen for Alice to compute the shared secret key: ...
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Why is there no “ephemeral non-DH EC” key exchange in TLS?

In RSA key exchange, the client picks a premaster secret and encrypts it with the RSA public key in the server certificate, and sends it to the server. This offers no forward secrecy. In ECDHE key ...
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ISAKMP 'master key' PFS (phase I) vs Ipsec session key PFS (Phase II)

A question for the crypto-experts to help out a somewhat confused guy: why does PFS (perfect forward secrecy) also exist in phase II as well as in phase I? Rationale: In phase I ISAKMP, the result ...
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Difference between group key agreement, group key sharing, group key distribution and group key establishement

I am currently doing a survey on group key, and throughout my readings, I stumbled on these different terms: Group Key agreement, Group key Sharing, Group key distribution, and Group key establishment....
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What is largest prime factor in Diffie-Hellman?

I was reading the paper of A Public Key Cryptosystem and a Signature Scheme Based on Discrete Logarithms by TAHER ELGAMAL to better understand ElGamal public-key scheme, and he stated that for any ...
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Triple Diffie-Hellman and MITM

While reading about Triple Diffie-Hellman, I was wondering how it can prevent MITM if the server decides to spoof key sets. For example, Alice and Bob are connected using a server. Alice ----- ...
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In the SIKE known answer tests, why is there only one secret key?

I'm looking at the SIKE known answer tests and am realizing that I'm confused on all the different terms in a Diffie-Hellman key exchange. From the Wikipedia page, I would think there would be a ...
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Message space when using the group of QR's for El Gamal Encryption

My textbook states, that the DDH-assumption is not satisfied when we use the group $\mathbb{Z}/p \mathbb{Z}$ and demonstrates an attack using Eulers Criterion. After that, it states that one should ...
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How to convert a Diffie–Hellman key exchange number to work with different encryption algorithms

I just read about Diffie–Hellman key exchange and was wondering how the value created from that can be used for any encryption method. Here is a link of where I read it from.
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Composition of X25519+XSalsa20+Poly1305

In an correct implementation of X25519+XSalsa20+Poly1305, I think I have the right understanding in saying that the Poly1305 message authentication code is a ...
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Secure implementation of public key cryptography

Reading online I've found out that for example the RSA implementation that you usually find on textook is not secure. Where I can find some secure implementation of algorithm such as RSA, ECDH, ECDSA? ...
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DH Key Exchange Protocol

Since I am not able to comment under the topic, I would like to ask here why in question 2 old post, we cannot distinguish the two distributions, even with unlimited computational power? Also, what ...
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attacks and defenses on multi party Diffie-Hellman protocol

I tried to create a 4 partied Diffie-Hellman implementation for 4 people using its cyclic group property. However, I am not sure regarding those 2 issues, and would appreciate if you could elaborate ...
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In a web application where does diffie-hellman key exchange come in (server or client side)?

I am creating a simple student web application for sending messages (client 1 encrypts the message with AES and then sends it over the server to client 2 where the message is decrypted). The problem ...
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Server stored, encypted messaging app

For my personal research, I have to create a messaging app, but security is only important part of application, security from MITM (man in the middle attack), at device end, and at server level. (note:...
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How does Diffie-Hellman apply to strings?

I have been doing a lot of research on Diffie-Hellman, and I understand how Alice and Bob are able to get a shared g^ab using both of their private keys. However, I am unsure about how this can be ...
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Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol with finite field GF(2^5)

In a Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol, the system parameters are given as follows: finite field $GF(2^5)$ defined with irreducible polynomial $f(x) = x^5 + x^2 + 1$ and primitive element $\alpha= ...
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At what modulus size does the logjam reduction stage become impractical?

Attacking a Diffie-Hellman exchange with logjam involves a massive precomputation effort once for the group, and then a comparatively simple reduction stage that is necessary to break each individual ...
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Why aren't Diffie Hellman public keys used for authentication?

So I have been reading about Diffie Hellman and specifically the MitM attacks that it is vulnerable to. I am aware that these are solved currently in ssl for instance by using rsa signatures to ...
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How is Diffle Hellman with RSA immune to man in the middle?

Alice and Bob want to exchange keys, Alice sends his half (the public key of the ephemeral key pair) signed with his private key and makes the public key available. Eve is bridging the connection so ...
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Discrete Logarithm: Given a p, what does it mean to find the discrete logarithm of x to base y?

My understanding is that $a^b \bmod p$ is the discrete logarithm problem. Given the question is worded this way, are we trying to find $ \log_y x \bmod p$. For instance, if we are trying to compute ...
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If they exist a relation between decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption and composite decisional residuosity assumption

From the cryptographic hardness assumptions, we have DDH and CDR assumptions. It is known that the composite decisional residuosity assumption is related to a factoring problem, while the DDH is ...
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Should I assume that all exponent syntax in the description of a Diffie-Hellman-based protocol implies modding?

I am examining the SPAKE2+ protocol introduced in Chapter 9 of a paper called The Twin Diffie-Hellman Problem and Applications. I noticing the use of a lot of syntax that looks like exponents. I am ...
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How is Pre Master Secret related to Client.random or Server.random if DH KEX is RSA

For TLS 1.2 cipher Suite AES256-GCM-SHA384, RSA is KEX(key exchagne algorithm). As per standards of RSA Diffie Hellman KEX, after 'ServerHello' message client gets server certificate and it generates ...
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Key-Agreement & Key-Transport for Symmetric Authentication System

Question: I want to know what kind of Master Key sharing process is pursuit on Symmetric encryption environments (strictly symmetric, also in the key sharing scheme). As I am aware there are several ...
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Regarding the need to hash the shared secret in X25519 with the public keys

I was looking at the LibSodium documentation where it says [...] and to mitigate subtle attacks due to the fact many $(p, n)$ [public key - secret scalar] pairs produce the same result, using the ...
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Need help understanding SPAKE2 setup values

I am trying to write a simulation of the SPAKE2 protocol in python (just so I can get a better understanding of the protocol altogether). I am reading through the ietf draft here: Datatracker. There'...
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recommended encryption algorithms to create an encrypted communication application

I have just turned 17 and I have been developing in Java for a few years. Recently I have been interested in a language called rust, I have also been made aware of privacy issues by some of my friends....
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Key exchange and authentication using libhydrogen

I have been able to exchange session keys on two devices using Libhydrogen's Key exchange using the N variant method. I also want to authenticate both devices to have some protection against the Man ...
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Is a Diffie-Hellman scheme in which parties always use the same public keys vulnerable?

I have come across a couple of protocols in which the public keys of the parties are static across conversations, even with different users. Something about this makes my hairs stand on end but I can'...
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Are all MNT curves assumed to hold XDH?

For one of my projects, I need a pairing group which holds the External co-Diffie-Hellman assumption. I am trying to implement it using Charm crypto python modules which provides support for MNT ...
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Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange attack on small secret keys [closed]

The question as the title suggests is based on the key exchange with Diffie-Hellman protocol and is something like this: *"We have intercepted a communication between Alice and Bob: intercepted-...

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