Questions tagged [diffusion]

Diffusion refers to the property of an encryption primitive that small changes in the plaintext result in big changes in the ciphertext and vice-versa.

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How 2 rounds in AES achieve full diffusion?

I have read somewhere that 2 rounds is AES provide full diffusion. So I looked it up to find out what it exactly meant. In The Design of Rijndael page 41, section 3.5 and it states that: Two ...
6
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2answers
388 views

Encrypt-Mix-Encrypt: Full Diffusion?

I've read "A Parallelizable Enciphering Mode" by Halevi and Rogaway about the encrypt-mix-encrypt mode for ciphers and was asking myself if this mode provides "full" diffusion. So if an attacker ...
8
votes
1answer
464 views

Understanding the wide trail design strategy

I am trying to understand the wide trail design strategy. I have read the paper which describes it from the point of view of AES. From what I understand, it is a technique to increase diffusion in a ...
5
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2answers
150 views

Early propagation of carries in the BLAKE hash function

The BLAKE paper uses round constants derived from $\pi$ to improve diffusion, even if the additions modulo $2^{32}$ are replaced with bitwise XOR when processing a null message and null initial state: ...
9
votes
1answer
4k views

How does AES introduce confusion and diffusion?

I know that in AES the shift-rows and mix-columns operations introduce diffusion, but I don't understand how they create diffusion. Also, I know the add-round-key operation creates confusion, but I ...