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In cryptography, a discrete logarithm is the number of times a generator of a group must be multiplied by itself to produce a known number. By choosing certain groups, the task of finding a discrete logarithm can be made intractable.

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Is this problem same as discrete logarithm?

Given $g,h\in\mathbb Z_p$ where $g$ generates $\mathbb Z_p^\star$ Discrete logarithm problem is to find $z$ such that $g^z\equiv h\bmod p$ holds. Take the problem given $g,g',h$ where $g^z\equiv h\...
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37 views

How many qbits are required to break Diffie-Hellman over a multiplicative group

There have been comparisons between RSA and ECDH with regards to the number of qbits (qubits) required to break the algorithm with a specific key size. But how many qbits are required to break "...
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1answer
91 views

How to solve this ECDLP?

The Problem is as follows: $E: y^2=x^3+17230x+22699 \pmod{23981} $ $p=23981$ is prime number point $G$ $G$'s order $109$ : prime number Alice creates a public key by ...
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41 views

Compute discrete logarithm with prime modulus

Given a cyclic group $G=<g>$ with known order which is divisible by $3$. How can we efficiently compute the discrete logarithm $x$ to base $g$ modulo $3$ of an arbitrary element $y=g^x\in G$? ...
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1answer
53 views

Is that right what I understand about MOV attack?

There is an elliptic curve. $y^2 = x^3 +ax+b \pmod p$ ($p$ is prime number) To solve DLP, need to find $r$ from given points $G$, $rG$. ($G$'s order is $q$ and $q$ is prime number) The MOV attack ...
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1answer
36 views

If the order of g is a prime number, is Pollard-rho the BEST?

If the bit size is 128 bits, I know that BSGS is not possible due to memory issues. I know that the complexity of Pollard-rho for 128 bits is 2^64. and I know that it is not possible to do 2 ^ 64 ...
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46 views

Can I use Pollard'-Rho even when the order is not a Prime?

I am now solving the ECDL problem. I want to use [discrete_log_rho] in SageMath, but I can not use it because ORDER is not a prime number. Can I change it to a decimal number close to ORDER at my ...
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1answer
32 views

Diffie Hellman Key Exchange Security wrt the hardness of discrete Logarithm

Hi I am very new to this field and I was wondering how one would prove or disprove the following statements: 1) if the DH key exchange protocol is secure for a finite cyclic group G, then computing ...
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1answer
60 views

Does knowledge of equal exponents decrease security?

Say I have a group $G$ with two different generators $g_1$ and $g_2$, where the discrete log from one to another is unknown. Also, there are two public commitments $g_1^{r}$ and $g_2^{r}$, where it ...
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1answer
121 views

Finding missing bits mathematicaly in a DLP situation (full problem)

In a preparatory question we had to recover decimal digits $@$ of $r$ and $s$ given $g=51234$, $h=90403$, $N=111649$, $r=3@497$, $s=276@3$, with $r$ and $s$ the smallest positive solutions to $g^r\...
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1answer
91 views

Finding missing bits mathematicaly in a DLP situation

Here is a DLP exercice $g = 51234,\; h = 90403 ,\; N = 311 \cdot 359 = 111649$. Define $r$ as the smallest positive integer with $g^r \equiv h \pmod N$. Define $s$ as the smallest positive integer ...
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1answer
73 views

BLS hash as a group element exponent?

In BLS short signatures paper, the authors describe a hash function $H\colon\ \{0, 1\}^∗ → G^∗$, where $G$ is a Gap-Diffie-Hellman group. They present a structure where a standard hash is used on a ...
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0answers
65 views

Explanation of a proof of one of Shoup's lemmas

In Lower Bounds for Discrete Logarithms and Related Problems, Victor Shoup states the following lemma: Lemma 1 Let $p$ be prime and let $t \ge 1$. Let $F(X_1, \dots, X_k) \in \mathbb{Z} / p^t[X_1, \...
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1answer
33 views

Discrete Log with regard to a random base

Suppose DL is hard in $G=\langle g \rangle$. For a uniformly random group element $r \in G$ (suppose $r=g^a$), is it hard to find $s$ given $r^s$ and $r$? Does the computational assumption have a well ...
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1answer
55 views

Zero knowledge proof for a double discrete log

I would appreciate some help with the following: Let $v = a^c$ and $c = g^s h^r$, where $g$ and $h$ are generators. Is there an "easy way" to prove knowledge of $a, c, s, r$ that satisfy the ...
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1answer
68 views

Trouble understanding the correctness of this Zero-Knowledge proof of posession of a discrete log

I came across the following protocol for a "Zero-Knowledge Proof of a Discrete Logarithm" in Bruce Schneier's Applied Cryptography (second edition) book. I simply cannot prove to myself that this ...
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2answers
63 views

Specific discrete logarithm question

I came across a DL that I need to solve... 5^k = 6361196924231058595008858273263807320 (mod 15860584089531798358308118294328202587) The modulus is a 124 bit ...
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1answer
58 views

Sigma protocol ZK-proof of a pair of pedersen commitments

Let's say you are using a $\Sigma$ protocol ZK proof to prove knowledge of $x_1, x_2$ so that $Y = g_1^{x_1}g_2^{x_2}$. Of course $g_1$, $g_2$ are generators within cyclic group G of prime order q, ...
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1answer
43 views

Describing Discrete Logarithm Assumption

I'd like to work out how exactly we should describe the discrete logarithm assumption (say, if we are writing a paper). Consider this: Let Gen be a group-generation algorithm on input $1^n$, which ...
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2answers
73 views

Discrete Logarithm in a specific group

I am considering a setting similar to the one of the Paillier cryptosystem, where we sample two distinct odd primes $p,q$, we set $n=pq$, we generate $a \leftarrow \mathbb{Z}_{n^2}^*$ and finally we ...
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1answer
45 views

Breaking DDH assumption

DDH says that: $(g,g^a,g^b,g^c)$ should be indistinguishable from $(g,g^a,g^b,g^{ab})$ assuming $a,b,c\in Z_P$. However, since $Z_p$ is finite and has $p-1$ elements, can we not just try $n^2$ ...
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90 views

Cryptographically Secure Elliptic Curve

What are the properties a cryptographically secure Elliptic Curve must have? I have started to create a list and wanted to know if I forgot some important points, and if it is correct so far: A curve ...
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2answers
68 views

Number of bits specified in standards implementation?

Currently deployed RSA and discrete logarithm implementation uses $1024$ to $2048$ bits. Hypothetically speaking if a crypto team produces a faster algorithm that moves current factoring and discrete ...
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2answers
53 views

about DL hash function proof

$$h(m) = g^m(\bmod p)$$ where $p$ is a prime number, how can I prove that this is a one way function and collision free? $$h(m) = g^m(\bmod n) $$ where $n=pq$ for two distinct primes $p,q$, how can I ...
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1answer
36 views

Discrete logarithm problem - Pohlig Hellman $GF(2^p)$

I would like to ask how to modify Pohlig Hellman algorithm if I need to work with polynomials $GF(2^{60})$ I know how this algorithm works with numbers, but I am not able to imagine how to do some ...
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1answer
163 views

Solving the discrete logarithm problem for a weak group

I was reading an answer about an attack on a weak group for the discrete logarithm problem and wanted to formalize and verify that the attack was correct. That is, that it was guaranteed to always ...
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3answers
546 views

How can there be insecure elliptic curves if the discrete logarithm problem is hard?

The discrete logarithm problem is the mathematical trap door function underpinning elliptic curve cryptography. If it's naturally hard to climb back through the trap door, how can there be insecure ...
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1answer
138 views

Schnorr signature using discrete logarithm / problem with python implementation [closed]

For educational purposes (by purpose with small values for the prime order q), I tried to write a small Python implementation of the Schnorr signature described in the Wikipedia article https://en....
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1answer
25 views

DLP-based keyed one-way function

I am trying to understand if it possible to use DLP to build a keyed one-way function with the following properties: $H_a(H_b(M)) = H_c(M)$, where $a$ and $b$ are the keys, and $c=a*b$ The output of ...
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1answer
132 views

Is Pohlig-Hellman Cipher the only option?

I am looking for a cipher which would allow something like this: E(E(M, a), b) = E(M, ab), where a and b are encryption keys, and ab is a combination of the keys that is impractical to separate into a ...
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55 views

Information sharing using interactive zero-knowledge system

I am trying to build a system that would allow information sharing in a kind of zero-knowledge way. Here is the set up: Let's say there is a trusted third party that has Alice's sensitive info M (e.g....
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1answer
34 views

Breaking a modified version of Diffie Hellmann Protocol

I'm modifying the Diffie Hellman protocol as follows: We are given a large prime number $p$ and exponent $x$ such that $0 \lt x \lt p-1$ and $\mathrm{gcd}(x, p-1) = 1$. Also we pick $g$ such as $1 \lt ...
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1answer
117 views

How hard is the following q-Strong Diffie-Hellman problem?

From On the $q$-Strong Diffie-Hellman Problem, the following problem is well-known to be hard. For an randomly chosen element $x \in \mathbb{Z}_p$ and a random generator $g \in \mathbb{G}$, the ...
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1answer
52 views

Is a composition of computational hardness problems still hard?

It is well known that both $g^x$ and $x^2$ are computational hardness problems in certain rings. But I wonder if the composition of them is still hard? Namely, given $(g, g^x, x^2)$ in a ring $Z_n$ ...
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1answer
80 views

Complexity of Discrete Logarithms in binary fields without special exponents or special structure

There has been recent work, due to Joux, Gologlu, Zumbragel and others which has developed efficient algorithms for discrete logarithms in small (and specifically binary) characteristics, where the ...
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1answer
76 views

Primitive root in a finite field

Wen-Her Yang and Shiuh-Pyng Shieh proposed two password authentication schemes by employing smart cards, one is timestamp-based and the other one is nonce-based. Their scheme consists of 3 phases: ...
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26 views

Looking for a HINT. Trying to prove that a generalized Pedersen commitment is computationally binding [duplicate]

Let $G$ be a finite cyclic group of prime order $q$ with generators $g,h_1,h_2,...,h_n$ whose discrete logs with respect to one another is not known. A generalized Pedersen commitment to messages $m_1,...
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2answers
203 views

Using Pedersen commitment for a vector

I'm reading Bootle/Groth. I'm trying to understand how they are committing to a vector using Pedersen commitment. Here's my understanding of Pedersen commitment in the context of this paper: We have ...
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1answer
61 views

Malicious DH parameters without using composite numbers

I know that it's possible to generate DH parameters that lead to it being easy to attack (e.g. trivial composite numbers), but is it possible to create a malicious parameter that is not a composite ...
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44 views

Does secure LWE implementation leak bit information?

We know RSA leaks one bit about the factors and improper yet secure implementations of Discrete Logarithm leak one bit about the discrete logarithm. Does LWE leak any information?
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1answer
86 views

Checking if discrete logarithm is $\geq\frac{\varphi(p)}2$ in polynomial time?

Given $p$ a prime, $g$ generator of $\Bbb Z_p^*$, and $h\in\Bbb Z_p^*$, that uniquely defines some $z\in[0,\varphi(p)[$ such that $g^z\equiv h\pmod p$. Is it possible to determine in polynomial time ...
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1answer
101 views

Elliptic curve representation

According to this page, Edward's curve point doubling can be represented in a different way by assuming $c=1$ and $d = r^2$. It then says we can represent $x y$ as $Y Z$ satisfying $r\cdot y = \frac ...
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2answers
239 views

Schnorr identification protocol security proof

I read about security proof of Schnorr identification protocol against impersonation attack. For the sake of comprehensibility let me sum up the protocol: Given group $G$ with generator $g$. Verifier ...
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112 views

Fewest qubits required for the discrete logarithm problem and integer factorization

According to a paper from 2002, the most efficient circuit to factor an $n$-bit integer requires $2n+3$ qubits and $O(n^{3}\lg(n))$ elementary quantum gates, assuming ideal qubits. Later on, according ...
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1answer
118 views

Why is calculating the discrete logarithm harder than calculating the public key?

A noob question, I know, but given n in range [0,q-1], and given an elliptic curve point P, we calculate the public key Q=nP. By doing so, we calculate P+P=2P, 2P+P = 3P, and so we get the values P,2P,...
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1answer
189 views

baby-step, giant-step vs Pollard-rho

I'm studying algorithms that solve the discrete logarithm problem over elliptic curve. Reading online, it seems that people use the bsgs algorithm when the order of the curve is "low" and P-rho when ...
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96 views

breaking DLOG with special prime

This question is not directly about cryptography, but I feel that it is most suitable for this site. DLOG problem: Given a prime $p$, $g$ a multiplicative generator of $\mathbb{Z}_p^\star$ and an ...
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1answer
249 views

Why aren't there function based discrete log problems?

If discrete logarithm is based on the fact that finding $x$ for $a^x$ is difficult, wouldn't it be difficult to find $n$ such that if $f(x_1) = x_2$ then $f(x_2) = x_3 ... = x_n$ if $x$ is a generator ...
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1answer
64 views

CDH between two groups implies weakness of El-Gamal

Let $G$ a cyclic group of prime order $p$ with a generator $g$. Let $H$ a cyclic group of prime order $p$ with a generator $h$. Suppose that you have an algorithm $\mathcal{A}$ that given two ...
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2answers
138 views

Why are theoretical hash constructions based on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem not really used in practice?

In an old 2010 Q&A at StackOverflow, Pornin states: … a good hash function "should not" allow a property such as surjectivity to be actually proven. This makes sense to me when looking at, for ...