# Questions tagged [encoding]

Encoding is the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but just changes the representation of information into a more convenient form.

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### Probability of encoded message using Weierstrass equation on NIST elliptic curve over prime finite field to return a quadratic residue?

Suppose we talk about NIST P-256 elliptic curve, and since finite field of an elliptic curve is a known prime number $P$, then approximately half of the Weierstrass equation results will be quadratic ...
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### Elliptic curve short Weierstrass equation that always returns a quadratic residue modulo curve field?

Currently I'm encoding my message using short Weierstrass equation $y^2 = x^3 + Ax + B$ and elliptic curve is NIST-P256, which has $A$, $B$ and $P$(elliptic curve field size) known. Encoding itself is ...
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### CKKS encoding. Why not just use fft

I am studying the ckks scheme from this blog post. In the vanilla encoding part we want to encode a complex vector of size N to a complex polynomial of degree N-1. This of course is possible if we ...
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### Why use coordinate-wise random rounding instead of regular rounding?

I've been reading a blog article on CKKS encoding and there they implement a coordinate-wise random rounding algorithm (which can be found in this paper) instead of the plain old rounding. The same ...
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### Sparse Packing for CKKS

Let $N$ be a power of two integer and $n$ be a divisor of $N$. We can encode a vector in $\mathbb{C}^{N/2}$ into the polynomial ring $R=\mathbb{Z}[X]/(X^N+1)$ as described in the original CKKS paper ...
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### What format to use to store private and public key in one file other than a PKCS12 keystore?

TLDR I want to generate an X25519 keypair and then store it in a single file for easier handling, but I cannot use a keystore like PKCS#12. Why OpenSSL makes it quite easy to generate a private key in ...
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