Questions tagged [encryption]

Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphertext back into plaintext, using the key.

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Are SSH key-pairs an example of a zero knowledge proof?

Quoting from source, authentication using SSH key pairs goes something like this: 1) The client begins by sending an ID for the key pair it would like to authenticate with to the server. 2) ...
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One-time-pad Encryption in C

I have been messing around with cryptography (for recreational use), and I created my own one-time-pad encryption script in C. Now, with that being said, I freely admit that I am by no means a ...
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Using one seed to create signing key pair and encryption key

I'm working on creating a secure digital vault. I'm using mnemonic to generate a seed. The seed is used to generate a signing key pair for identity verification. However I want to also encrypt the ...
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what is difference between CKKS bootstrapping an TFHE bootstrapping? [closed]

Compare the libraries how they are different. all the libraries are implement using LWE hard problem. compare with HElib
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279 views

Hardware, Handheld Password Manager

I am currently working on a hardware project that will utilize the native USB and keyboard emulation capabilities of the Teensy device. Essentially, the user will store an encrypted password database ...
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How to sign CAM/DENM messages using mbed LTS libray with ECDSA (EEE Std 1609.2)

I have read ETSI TS 103 097 and EEE Std 1609.2 which gives me the security data structure defined in ASN.1 notation. I want to use mbed LTS to calculate the ECDSA signature. I understand that I should ...
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Multi Factor Encryption?

I got an alert last night to the keywords above and was curious, so took a look at the tor site flagged which is the following one: http://nsrz5iogimqwgeax3clpp6hvfy6viom2woy7dghgxes4sqk63r7svoqd....
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How does the simulator generate a correct transcript under HVZK with the Fiat-Shamir heuristic?

Background I understand the interactive version of Schnorr's protocol and I understand how the simulator can generate an output that is i.i.d to the output of the prover-verifier: Question What I don'...
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hiding bits inside random bits, is this some sort of encryption?

Let's say that I uniformly sample a 1000 bits randomly. Then, I hide a secret of 10 bits on those 1000 bits, randomly. That is, I pick each of the 10 bits and randomly replace them inside the 1000 ...
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Update to "Cryptographic Right Answers"

I'm a big fan of Colin Percival's "Cryptographic Right Answers" post. This was written in 2009, which is a long time ago in Internet years. Is the advice still valid or, if not, can someone point me ...
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Homomorphic Encryption Library Supporting Addition, Multiplication & Logical Shift

Does anyone know of a C++ homomorphic encryption library that supports addition, multiplication and logical right shift over integers? Some set of instructions that allows the implementation of ...
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Is there any fundamental difference between the block cipher operations encryption and decryption?

Is there any fundamental reason to designate one direction of a block cipher as "encryption" and the other "decryption"? Or are these arbitrary choices? Or perhaps practical ...
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Why I'm getting ValueError while trying to unpad the data? [closed]

In short, I'm developing an encrypted chat using ECDH + AES. All encrypting and decrypting algorithms work just fine when I'm testing them separately. They are also working when there is established ...
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Wireguard: How do I verify web traffic & would it be considered encrypted? [migrated]

I setup a connection between my Windows PC & a VitualBox Debian Server running WireGuard using this walkthrough. The connection appears to be working because the Windows WireGuard Client GUI shows ...
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What would you tell this string is? [closed]

I have found this string gyO0uqISbC7xThS/f7Wx5Q== but I'm not able to decode it. I've tried Base64, Rot13 and more things but nothing seems to be working. Thanks
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Number of Involuntory Keys in Permutation Cipher

I've came with the following problem from the Theory and Practice book by Stinson-Paterson. It states the following: 2.17 (a) Prove that a permutation $\pi$ in the Permutation Cipher is an ...
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Pretty much confused about pretty good privacy-:

Authentication-: I understand that authentication is basically digital signature. But what I don't understand is how it has been explained here specially the RSA key part. It is leading me to huge ...
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Apply a permutation cipher by hand

I did the following problem from the book "Cryptography Theory and Practice" as I am doing some self-study. Problem: a) Suppose that $\pi$ is the following permutations of the set $\lbrace 1,\dots,8 ...
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Can attacker steal data from AES encrypted table without knowing the key?

I think of a situation that attacker can steal data from AES encrypted table without knowing the key. I tried to search on internet but found nothing about this(may be I were not using the correct ...
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What is the global resource expense (financial, energy, computing power & time) due to the need for cryptography?

Classic disclaimer: there may be a better place to ask this question, if so comment and I will be happy to move it. An example I'm looking for is related to recent scrutiny over energy consumption of ...
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Difference between fuzzy vault and fuzzy commitment?

https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/2905055.2905118 Quoting the above paper's abstract, "Biometric cryptosystem can apply fuzzy vault, fuzzy commitment, helper data and secure sketch, whereas, ...
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Where to store salt for PBKDF2 and initialization vector for AES via WebCrypto

I would like to build secure notes via javascript and webcrypto. I have found the possibilities to generate strong key via PBKDF2 and encrypt data via ...
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Is it okay to avoid a plaintext IV in AES?

The scenario Using AES 256 with CBC mode. (Authentication is done separately. Ignored here.) The goal (explained more later) To avoid sending an unencrypted IV. But since this is being done using .NET ...
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How secure is it to use a 128-bit random seed to derive a 256-bit key for seeding key-pair generation?

We are developing an open-source peer-to-peer app, Mapeo, designed for users with low technical experience (and no email or phone) to collect data in offline environments. We are generating their ...
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Teaching AI a cryptogram and asking it to solve a similar cryptogram on its own

Say that 1 cipher and another are known to hold some form of correlation. Would it be possible to teach an AI one language through the training of a model and allow it to make make predictions on ...
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Encrypted verifiable schema with hidden content

I'm having a problem with an encryption scheme. There are two entities, $A$ and $B$. $A$ give a simple message $m \in [0,1]$ to $B$. $B$ should generate an encrypted message of $m$: $e=Enc_{pk}(m)$ ...
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Construction of S-Box in PRESENT

I'm currently working on an hardware implementation (with verilog) of PRESENT-80 for research purposes. Due to our goal to strengthen the security of PRESENT-80 with Masking and Error Detection I need ...
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How expensive is it to migrate from AES-128 to AES-256

How feasible would it be to migrate from AES-128 to AES-256?
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What are the conditions under which quadratic boolean functions are the same?

When are the following two quadratic boolean functions equal? Is it possible only when a_{i,j}=b_{i,j}? Then, how about qubic, quartic, or degree of d? I need your wisdom.
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How slow is the hash used for Mac FileVault encryption?

Certain password strength estimators (for instance, zxcvbn) give estimates that vary with the speed of the hash and the assumed resources of the attacker. I am curious what hash is used by the MacOS ...
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Unable to understand notation regarding Shannon's theorem

the following equation is used to prove the Shannon's theorem by showing the existence of two messages $m_0, m_1$ if $|K| < |M|$ but I'm unable to visualize/understand the probabilities. Especially ...
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Encrypt a file with AES using a secret key derived with Argon2

I would like to encrypt some sensitive files on my computer and smartphone so that they remain unreadable even if the computer is stolen. So far as I'm concerned, AES is the best encryption algorithm,...
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Methods and tools for Plain-text Attacks

I have a data block of about 950 byte (previously encoded in QR code). The data is encrypted with an unknown algo+key. The bright side is: I already know many parts of the message, and I have multiple ...
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Is it safe to store the hash of a plain text?

When encrypting data, I want to verify that the correct key was entered without hashing it. Is it safe to decrypt the ciphertext and compare the hash of it with the stored one or can the plaintext (...
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How to convert plaintext to element of cyclic group in Cramer-Shoup cryptosystem

I am trying to implement a cramer-shoup cryptosystem but I don't understand how to work with the plaintext I want to encrypt. From what I understand, the plaintext needs to be converted to an element ...
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1answer
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Creating nested messages in OpenPGP

I need to create a nested message in OpenPGP (my understanding is that the protocol itself should support it). Let's say I have Payload ("Time in Lordran is ...
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1answer
101 views

Which encryption technique should be adopted to keep the search functionalities?

I am in exactly the same situation as described in this post. I must be able to encrypt data from a client workstation then send it to an untrusted server (encrypted at rest), then decrypt it only on ...
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Is asymmetric decryption guessable?

I am not an amateur in cryptography so this might be a very basic question. I am interested to know if there exist ciphers such that if I encrypt a message with it and then lose first say 300 bits ...
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1answer
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How can AES-CCM behave as an AEAD stream cipher?

AESCCM- Couter with Cipher Block Chaining Message. As it uses cmac for generation for tag , which is internally aes-cbc (block cipher, need block size, may require padding) And Encryption is done ...
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Are there any crypography schemes which rely on Graph Isomorphism not being in P?

Are there any cryptography schemes having correctness relying on Graph Isomorphism not being in P? If I should ask this question in the CS Theory area, I will migrate it. Thanks.
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Two-way encryption algorithms similar to bcrypt

I'm in need of an algorithm that can perform a very specific task: take a short string, encrypt it using an algorithm which can be scaled to keep up with Moore's Law/has a proof-of-work factor/is ...
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Can I increase strength of ECB by decorrelating input data with compression

I know that ECB block cipher mode is the weakest method of encryption because repetitions in input data with a stride of a block size lead to repetitions in output data. However, as I may consider, ...
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Encrypted data sharing in decentralised system

Alice encrypts file using her public key and upload it to decentralised file store (some service). Bob buys access to the file. Is it possible to share decrypted file with Bob without having Alice's ...
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1answer
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Is GPG symmetric encryption only based on a passphrase?

Is the symmetric key derived for AES only dependent on the passphrase? Is it possible to generate the encryption key such that it is based on my primary GPG private key and temporary passphrase? In ...
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What's the difference beteween SIDH and SIKE?

I'm a semi newbie in crypto (I've had that uni course of discrete math that includes basic cryptography principles) and wanted to go a bit further in isogeny graphs. I have downloaded the C ...
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is there any good attack model of HMAC?

are there any good attack models of HMAC ? like how it can be attacked ? if there are any possible attacks of HMAC i would be happy to know about it.
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How are data science and cryptography related?

Are there any interesting connections between the fields of data science and cryptography? Data science involves the use of statistical analysis to analyze data while cryptography also involves ...
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Why can't we have AES512 or more? [duplicate]

Look I know AES256 is ridiculously secure but to keep aes secure even after quantum computers, I have a concern. Using the Grovers theorem aes can be reduced from 256 to 128 bits for brute force ...
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Example of exchanging information

I am searching for a simle model that can simulate the following procedure. Suppose that $i$ and $j$ are two agents that each one obtains her state dependets signal $s_i(\omega)$ and $s_j(\omega)$. ...

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