Questions tagged [encryption]

Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphertext back into plaintext, using the key.

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Encrypt-then-HMAC with a single key is secure?

The partition oracle attacks exploits the non-committing AEAD schemes. Informally, a committing encryption scheme is one for which it is computationally intractable to find a pair of keys and a ...
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GPG should you double sign?

This is not a question about whether I should encrypt or sign first, as I've read here. Rather, it's about whether I should sign, then encrypt, then sign again. Because as far as I know, there is no ...
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Secure CCA Encryption under Partial Key Exposure

I'm currently learning about chosen ciphertext attack and stumbled across a problem on CCA security. If I have an encryption scheme $(Gen,Enc,Dec)$, which is CCA-secure with $Enc:\{0,1\}^n\times \{0,1\...
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Ensuring a salesman gets his commission without revealing total sales

I (ACME Corp) run a SaaS website that charges a USD amount (lets say $1) per file processed. I directly employed a sales rep. (Alice) at 8% commission i.e. she makes 8% of $1 for every file uploaded ...
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Compare encrypted values

Is there any way to make an encryption scheme where you can check whether two values were very similar by only looking at the encrypted values. By alike I mean something like 1113740 and 1123740 are ...
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Looking for a way to enlarge a message so that any modification to the “enlarged” message makes recovering the original message impossible

Let's say we have a message m of small size. I am looking for a system $S$ so that $S(m)$ is arbitrarily large, we can easily compute the inverse $I(S(m)) = m$, and any modification to $S(m)$ makes it ...
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Unknown bit in the output of encryption of data using SIMECK32 cipher?

How is the unknown bits (annotated by red arrow in figure below) come in the OUTPUT after round 1 and round 2 ? Following is the pictorial representation of SIMECK round function operation. Ref: ...
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where are ssh.com's crypticore and seed defined?

ssh.com's Tectia offers a few algorithms seemingly unique to itself. Chief among them: crypticore128@ssh.com, crypticore-mac@ssh.com and seed-cbc@ssh.com Are these algorithms publicly defined ...
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openssl encryption salt length

when i was reading the latest source code of openssl, i found openssl enc has an 8-byte (64-bit) salt length; because the same ...
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What should the hamming weights be between every iteration of AES?

I have an assignment where I have to print out the hamming weights between every iteration of AES's diffusion steps and I have been getting a maximum weight on every iteration, but I can't seem to ...
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Intuition for Cramer Shoup Encryption Scheme?

I was reading the Cramer Shoup CCA2 secure encryption scheme. The scheme is as follows. Public key = $(g_1, g_2, c, d, h, hk)$, where $c = g_1^{x_1}g_2^{y_1}$, $d = g_1^{x_2}g_2^{y_2}$, $h = g_1^z$, ...
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Security of an Elliptic Curve Public Key with a “Small” x-coordinate

Consider an elliptic curve over a finite field $F_p$ with $p$ prime and order $n$. Let $Q$ be a generator for the field. Given a public key point $P = aQ$, suppose we have an algorithm that finds an ...
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Is it possible to encrypt a user’s email in a zero-knowledge way and still send them emails?

This is kind of hypothetical, but let’s say I have a web app and I want to store a user’s email for sending notifications to. Is there any zero-knowledge way to hide their email from ourselves and ...
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How to ensure integrity of encrypted data having hashes only?

Having: plaintext $P$ a hash function $H$, encryption $E$ with key $k$ $h_p = H(P)$ and $h_{E_P} = H(E_k(P))$ Is there an encryption scheme $E$ or hash algorithm $H$ that allows proving that $h_{...
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Generating sets of unreadable/secure and unique random numbers

In the process of doing some research, I stumbled across the following two claims on the PokerStars website. We do record all of the hole cards in all real money hands. This is an important tool ...
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Derivable encryption key - BIP0032 parallel

I wish to find an asymmetric encryption algorithm that supports key derivation, BIP0032 style. Meaning that I have some SEED [PRIV] and I give someone some public data [PUB], then given new public ...
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Is it possible to delegate re-encryption key generation?

In a non-interactive proxy re-encryption scheme, Alice, with the key pair $(pk_a, sk_a)$, needs to issue a re-encryption key $re_{a\rightarrow b}$ once she wants to share her secret message with Bob, ...
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End-To-End encryption for VoIP teleconference applications and many-to-many lag-sensitive applications

There are various protocols that allow you to have privacy-enhanced chat. Those can be either 2-party chat such as: OTR SIGNAL or multiparty chat such as: SIGNAL (n+1)sec mpOTR GOTR (2013 spec and ...
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Can we encrypt data that must be decrypted with any private key plus a server generate bits?

I have come up with a scenario to make a secure data. Suppose I have a public encrypted file that anybody can download. But whenever anyone want to decrypt that data they need to get a key from server ...
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Where shoul I store private/public keys and how should I share it?

I'm new in terms of encryption and I have to encrypt the data between two Java Spring applications, one have serves as MVC framework and other as Web Service, I'm implementing an asymmetric encryption ...
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P2P Website/Database Encryption Process

Sorry if this doesn't fit the guidelines, but I believe it is a conceptual issue that is not opinion-based and can be reasonably answered in a single authoritative answer (I'm also struggling to find ...
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Asymmetric encryption property required in an authentication protocol

We want to choose an asymmetric encryption scheme for use as follows: A device holds its private key, with the corresponding public key known and trusted by all. The device also holds a small $b$-bit ...
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Seekable cipher, is AES CTR a good solution?

I'd like to create a simple file-cipher, which provides seekable encryption (so I can decrypt any part of the encrypted message, without the need of decrypt from the start). Here's my current idea: I ...
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Plaintext DH keys in the message header in the Double Ratchet Algorithm

I've been reading details about the Double Ratchet algorithm, and I wanted some clarification regarding the aspect of the DH public keys going out in the plain in the header of every message. Quoting ...
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AES-CTR and AES-CMAC using the same temporary key

Is it a severe security issue using a short-lived dynamic key for both AES-CTR and AES-CMAC? CMAC is generated on the cleartext and 32 bit of it are attached to the message (MAC-and-Encrypt) The key ...
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What's a good security schema for many to many communication?

Assuming you have a "typical" group chat-room, with n participants connected together by a server (the server handles message routing). Would be a good security schema which would allow for encrypted ...
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Estonian e-voting, vote verification system

I believe I do understand the basics of how the Estonian e-voting system works, but I'm stuck at their vote verification system. In order to get the vote verified, a client needs to encrypt all of the ...
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What is the complex Element 'KeyInfo' in the encrypted XML example for?

I'm not sure, if this is a question really about cryptography and whether it would better fit to Stack Overflow, but I try... In my xml example, some elements are encrypted with ...
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Asymmetric vs symmetric encryption

I am a beginner learning about encryption and I would like to ask a few questions, hoping this is the right place to ask, so please bear with me. We have Alice and multiple clones of Bob. Only Alice ...
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Cryptographic key Length

How long should a block cipher key length should be? what key length from below numbers can be treated as safe, keeping in view the current/ future brute force capabilities. 64 bit 80 bit 96 bit 120 ...
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How do I use LDPC for distributed error correction

If I have bit sequence X at Alice and correlated sequence Y at Bob. How do I use LDPC to correct errors in Y such that X = Y. All examples I've seen about classical LDPC assume X is modulated, passed ...
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How long does it take to brute force Blowfish-448?

I am conducting an investigation on the efficiency of AES and Blowfish with regards to memory when encrypting data of varying sizes. I open my essay with an introduction as to what encryption is and ...
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AES-128: How to find cipherkey comparing wrong and right ciphertexts?

I have a .mat file which contains 10 plaintexts and 10 ciphertexts which are correctly encrypted with AES-128 algorithm. It also contains 10 more ciphertexts which are wrongly encrypted. The fault is ...
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Security aspects of a splitted Pohlig-Hellman system

Given a Polig-Hellman (is that really the name for that?) system with $$C = M^k \bmod p$$ where $M$ is the message, $C$ is the ciphertext, $k$ is a (secret) key (any integer relatively prime to $p-1$...
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How to safely double-encrypt a secret?

Imagine two persons: Alice and Bob. We have a generated secret value that is valuable and has to be encrypted in a way that both can't reveal the value on their own but only when they both confirm. ...
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Why is a LCG not suitable for use in a cryptographic primitive?

Two's complement addition (and multiplication) are non-linear with respect to XOR and AND. This means that for bit vectors over $\mathbb{Z}_2$, the operation $a + x$ cannot be expressed as the matrix ...
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The knife paradox?

In one of the hot forums of today on how to convince friends cryptography is good one of the arguments stated is the knife paradox, I was unable to find the answer on Google and my question is what is ...
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Can I serve data for user without the ability to access them? Which functions for the user remain?

My Problem I want to serve sesible data for users as a webservice that is accessed by the user via the browser. Restrictions: I may not be able to technically acces the data of the user Data is ...
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Is there any symmetric key cipher (block or stream cipher) providing partial decryption?

symmetric key cipher (block or stream cipher) providing partial decryption of data at some points. Although the entire data has not been decrypted, the data decrypted to that specific point should be ...
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AES - Size of T-Boxes and obtaining T-Box values

In article "A high performance ST-Box based unified AES encryption/decryption architecture on FPGA" (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141933115001945) two 32Kb dual-port BRAMs are ...
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CryptDB data re-encryption and onion layers

From the CryptDB paper , I understood that the onion layers once decrypted are not re-encrypted. Only columns which are queried infrequently will be re-encrypted to higher onion layers. But if we know ...
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Unpredictable value rotation

I have very vey basic skills in cryptography, it's hard for me to explain clearly my problem so I will start with an example. Estimote beacons have a security function called secure UUID, once ...
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Would using a symmetric list of subkeys in a Feistel cipher make our messages vulnerable to oracle attacks?

Suppose I have a Feistel cipher structure that has $16$ rounds. I come up with $8$ subkeys $k_1,k_2,...,k_8$ to be used for the first $8$ rounds and then assign the rest of the keys so that $k_9=k_8,...
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on broadcast encryption

I've read the following paper and have one question on it. M. Luby and J. Staddon, "Combinatorial Bounds for Broadcast Encryption", EUROCRYPT'98. On page 523 (12th page of the paper) the authors say ...
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Performance of Fully homomorphic encryption VS Paillier encryption in Practice

Consider two schemes both have computation complexity linear to the input size (i.e. number of inputs). One scheme is based on Paillier encryption and the other one is based on fully homomorphic ...
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prepaid meters that rely on a disconnected system

i have some experience with cryptography in the banking sectors, mostly in block ciphers like DES 3DES etc. im interested in prepaid electricity meters as it is a number that is generated from a ...
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Proposed unidirectional authentication scheme

I've been looking around for a way to authenticate a client to the server and deliver a message, but in a unidirectional fashion - that is, the client sends messages to the server, but the server ...
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Energy necessary for brute-forcing or decryption

I am trying to understand how the physical limits of computation apply to crytography, and came up with the scenario below as a sort of gedanken. I would be grateful to see how others answer it. ...
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Encrypted database: how to deal with general queries?

My question is quite related to the concept of homomorphic encryption, which is not practical at all nowadays. In short, I would like to know how to query encrypted databases. Simple queries which ...
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RSA encryption and signature padding flaw

This is Oxford's computer security exam question: Suppose that Bob has published an RSA encryption key $ke$ (retaining in secret the corresponding decryption key $kd$), and Alice has published a ...

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