Questions tagged [enigma]

The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken. Questions relating to this machine should use this tag and you may also which to use the historic tag.

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What are examples of mechanical dictionaries? [closed]

My question is not about en/decrypting words but rather using a mechanical device to compute some basic words and letters manipulations such as finding anagrams. I of course realise that storing and ...
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Looking for books and non-paywalled websites about Enigma “rapid analytic machinery”

I am by now perfectly aware that "Bletchley Park had much more available to them than 'Bombes,'" but I'm finding it difficult to find on-line explanations of their many other types of "...
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Enigma - How many possibilities does the plugboard have?

I try to relate my own calculation with the real result being about 150.738.274.937.250. The plugboard has 26 letters, and you have 10 wires to connect pairs of letters. My idea was to calculate first ...
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My question is about Enigma rotors

I found this explanation of Enigma rotor movement on this website, but can't quite understand the methodology: Enigma rotation example A ⤑ B → D ⤑ C (rotor III in position B) C ⤑ C → D ⤑ D (rotor II ...
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Why does the Bombe not consider the Ringstellung when determining stecker pairs?

I am doing research on the Bombe Machine, and I read that when the Bombe tries to find the stecker (plugboard) partners of letters, it only needs to use the rotor types and arrangement and also the "...
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Why are the indicator drums of a Bombe machine labelled from A to Z clockwise?

I am researching the Bombe Machine, having just completed a project on the Enigma Machine. I visited The Rutherford Journal - The Turing Bombe, and it claimed that The scales on the three ...
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Estimating the probability of success of a Turing-Welchman attack on an enigma machine as a function of the length of the crib (known plaintext)?

Could anyone please tell me how to to Estimate the probability of success of a Turing-Welchman attack as a function of the length of a crib (known plaintext)?? for example we have the : plain text=...
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What was the key length of the Enigma?

When I type in any plaintext to an Enigma machine (Enigma machine emulator) the substitution does not seem to follow any pattern. In other words, there is no cycle in the use of enciphering alphabets (...
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Secure enigma machine?

The enigma machine had a serious flaw: the letters could not be encrypted as themselves. Is there an online enigma simulator I can try that does not have this flaw, which would likely make it secure?
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How does a ring affect an inverse rotor?

Rotor I with ring A would look like this: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓ EKMFLGDQVZNTOWYHXUSPAIBRCJ Inverse rotor I with ring A would look ...
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254 views

What's different between ground setting and ring set in the Enigma machine?

I am writing a python program for the Enigma machine. I know what the ground setting (Grundstellung) is but I don't know the difference between ground setting and ring setting. What's different ...
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What is the best way to attack enigma without any a priori knowledge about the plaintext?

I know in great (great great great) detail about how they cracked enigma during the second world war. Looking into it, I decided to have a crack at breaking it. I've come apon a single problem with my ...
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How much would removing enigmas biggest flaw improve it?

Enigma's biggest flaw was that a letter could never be encrypted as itself. How much would enigma's security increase if it were possible that a letter could be encrypted as itself? I know that would ...
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Was Enigma really that hard to crack, given that you had access to hundreds of messages per network per day?

Well, I guess that I have always been a little bit suspicious ... so to speak ... of the "official stories" about the difficulty of recovering Enigma message texts during WW2, because it seems to me ...
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Theory Question with Enigma

I have been reading a bit about how the Enigma machine was cracked in WW2. There was also this wonderful post which highlighted a lot of useful information. Let's assume I know everything about how ...
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Question about Enigmas involutional property and its reduction of possible ciphers

I'm currently learning cryptography at a university. I can't wrap my mind around how the involutional property of Engima reduces its possible ciphers while being poly-alphabetic. Can someone please ...
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Enigma message decode errors, and protocols to prevent them

I was looking at some Enigma messages for some random reasons, and I wondered if there were ever issue pulling the correct words out the strings of characters of if there was a protocol for it. For ...
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How can the Enigma's plugboard settings be found with partially known plaintext?

I don't quite understand the procedure described on wikipedia, is there a generalized procedure you can follow to rule out a pairing on the plugboard? For example, let's say the cipher text is ...
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Was the Enigma's double stepping mechanism intentional?

It's sometimes refered to as the double stepping anomaly, so was it just a design flaw or was it put in place deliberately?
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Enigma rotation example

According to wikipedia: BDZGO is the expected outcome when doing the enigma chipher on the letters AAAAA with rotors I,II,III and reflector B. ...
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Enigma: a Question from WW2

I have seen in the Imitation Game that the Germans reset the Enigma at midnight sharp, and then they start messaging by sending the weather report in the morning. But the device made by Alan Turing, ...
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Fastest / easiest way to find rotor wiring without physical inspection on Enigma Machine emulator

We have an Enigma machine emulator we are trying to replicate. Machine has 3 rotor positions and 6 rotors that can be selected. The input goes through 3 rotors then is reflected back to start as is ...
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How to decrypt / break enigma-encrypted ciphertext with given configuraton?

I'm new here--seriously I don't know anything, but my close friend sending me a code and I must solve it. The code uses Rotor III, V, VIII; starting point ABC; reflector BB; and pair OA LU. Can ...
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Enigma: Theorie Rotors [closed]

I wanted to programm the enigma (using C#). But it seems like i dont understand how the rotors work. Becouse if we take the first three rotors: ekmflgdqvzntowyhxuspaibrcj ajdksiruxblhwtmcqgznpyfvoe ...
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rotor machines: secrecy of wiring

During the heydays of rotor machines, the internal rotor wiring was always a closely guarded secret. Even fully cleared repair staff was not allowed to do anything that could reveal it. As the ...
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When does the first rotor in Enigma machine rotate?

I read a ton of articles about the Enigma machine. And the one thing that I can't get is when the first rotor stars rotating. Some articles says the rotor rotates after the first letter of message ...
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Using enigma and missing one word/sentence

After you set up all rotors, position and plugs in Enigma machine. If you don´t get the signal of one word or one sentence... your enigma settings are desynchronized. How you can recover from this ...
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Modifying an Enigma machine to allow unchanged letters

One of the biggest flaws of Enigma was that a letter couldn’t represent itself because the route through the machine was one-way. I was thinking a quick fix could be to introduce a rotor position that ...
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What is the difference in exchanging the Enigma rotors in their slots?

I have a question regarding the exchange of the rotors in a enigma machine. I know that there are 3 slots and that up to 8 rotors can be used in those slots. What I don't understand is, as all the ...
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Order of letters on 3-rd rotor: Enigma III

In the photo you can see the three Enigma's rotors. On the 1-st rotor (marked with number 50 on the photo) letters put on clockwise. On the 2-nd rotor letters put on counterclockwise. Question. ...
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Is it right that the Bomba can halt, but give you a different settings other than the one Germans really used for encryption using an Enigma?

Considering different groundsettings for these messages: AWE RDE AFR AFG HIU HKQ (where similar letters were known as (1,4) ,(2,5) females etc. I think the cipher clerk rotated the rotors based on ...
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Why the permutation of the right hand rotor given in Rejewski's paper is $PNP^{-1}$?

I would like to know why the permutation of the right hand rotor given in Rejewski's paper is $PNP^{-1}$. First of all I can't get how he added an $P$(alphabetic permutation) at the front of $N$(...
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Why Rejewski advanced three position for the right rotor in the second set of rotors in the Cyclometer he devised?

In this article about decryption of Enigma(p.259), author says that the second set of rotors was stepped three positions beyond the groundsetting in the Cyclometer Rejewski devised. I would like ...
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152 views

Key vs Algorithm when applied to Enigma

I've just been reading the Why should I make my cipher public? question and answers on this site. I understand Kerckhoffs's principle, but I'm unsure exactly how this applies to Enigma - i.e. where ...
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A Modernized Enigma?

I've seen answers here and elsewhere discussing how well the WWII Enigma could hold up to modern cryptanalysis, however, those answers always seem to assume the WWII conditions where the Germans had a ...
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Does adding more characters to the Enigma rotors improve crypto strength?

This seems like an obvious question but I haven't been able to find it, so here goes: Enigma is based on an alphabet of A-Z (26 characters); obviously this directly affects message content (e.g. ...
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culling equivalent Enigma keys for short messages [closed]

The following for-loop iterates over all possible keys for an M3 Enigma for three selected rotors: ...
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Possible enigma settings? [duplicate]

I'm writing an assignment about the Enigma machine, and i'm trying to calculate the amount of settings the enigma machine has. I have found several sites regarding this topic, but it seems like there ...
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Turing's (still?) classified inference engine algorithm?

Does anyone know the algorithm used by Turing's Colossus inference engine, so highly classified that the Brits kept it secret for decades after WW II? Indeed, it may still be classified. Several ...
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How many possible Enigma machine settings?

I'm trying to calculate the amount of settings the enigma machine has. I have found several sites regarding this topic, but it seems like there are two answers to my question. The first answer is 158,...
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Would adding daily changing nulls in front of their messages have made the Engima harder to crack?

The British decrypted the German enigma because they knew that they would repeat the message key twice at the start of every message. Of course, technology to encrypt enigma without the repetition ...
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Would the rotors in Enigma machines always advance by one position? Or was there a way to set this?

Before encrypting a letter the first rotor advances by one, right? So there could be a way, once the first rotor turns 26 times, make the second rotor advance two positions instead of one. Or three. ...
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“Royal Flags Wave Kings Above” [closed]

I'm a starter to cryptanalysis and in fact to cryptology. Last night I was decrypting a message from a book that I would quite odd. It doesn't make sense. The decrypted message is "Royal Flags Waves ...
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Obtain Enigma key having a encrypted text and the plain text

I have an Enigma message and I know what the original message is (a repetition of the same letter). Is it possible obtain the enigma key? I only know what kind of Enigma machine is it, but I need to ...
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How exactly is an enigma simulation software supposed to encrypt alphabets?

EDIT: The model I'm trying to make is "Enigma 1". I learned initially about it from a book called "Code Book" and then looked at it in detail from its wikipedia page. The rotor wiring and other ...
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How does the ring settings of enigma change wiring tables?

EDIT: The model I'm trying to make is "Enigma 1". I learned initially about it from a book called "Code Book" and then looked at it in detail from its wikipedia page. The site wont allow me too add ...
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472 views

Under what conditions did a Bletchley bombe stop?

I am trying to understand the conditions necessary for one of the Bletchley Park bombes to stop. Let me give an example. I have been experimenting with Enigma machine and bombe simulators to try to ...
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Why is this the inverse of a Enigma Machine rotor?

I am learning about how the Enigma Machine works and I found this example of one letter being encrypted by an Enigma Machine. It shows the letter "G" going through three rotors and then it goes into ...
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Which algorithm can be performed by humans?

Suppose I want my grandmother to perform encryption without any help from a computer, and she must encrypt the word 'HELLO' for me. I could ask her to instead of typing the real keys, that she always ...
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Engima machine decoding with PC and GPU

I saw this answer at this site about decoding a 3-rotor Engima machine's settings: How cryptographically secure was the original WW2 Enigma machine, from a modern viewpoint? And did some math for ...