Questions tagged [entropy]

Entropy is a measure of how predictable the outcome of a random process is, or how much uncertainty one has about an unknown quantity in one's state of knowledge, defined in terms of the probability distribution on possible outcomes or quantities.

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Should I calculate SHA-256 hash of a raw bytes of a token or it's hex encoding?

I have a system where I should generate a secret token for a user. The presence of a token is sufficient to grant access to some user-related data. I am generating a 4096 bit token from a ...
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Measuring entropy of a uniform distribution source

What is entropy? I do not understand it at all. One article states: When there is an equal chance for all items to appear, we have a uniform distribution. In uniform distribution the entropy is high....
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Quantum key distribution using BB84 protocol

Quantum key distribution using BB84 protocol. The Secure key rate $R$, is given by $$ \quad R=1 - 2h(e_b) \tag{1}\label{q1}$$ where $e_b$ is the quantum bit error rate (QBER), $h(x)$ is the Shannon ...
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In my opinion a lot of encryption paper have small contribution in terms of security improvements [closed]

I used to saw a lot of encryption papers that have small significance in security improvements especially in terms of entropy, histogram and coefficient correlation especially in image encryption. Why ...
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How is it possible to prove that Shanon entropy does not change applying any bijective function to X? [duplicate]

I was wondering how is it possible to mathematically prove that Shannon entropy does not change when applying any bijective function to X? For instance H(X) = H(f(X)) assuming that f is invertible and ...
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How to prove that permutation and substitution ciphers satisfy H(X) = H(Y) in Shanon Entropy?

I was not able to mathematically prove that all permutation and substitution ciphers satisfy H(X)=H(Y) if we say that Y is the set of ciphertexts while X is the corresponding set of plaintexts in ...
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Recovery Passphrase Collission for BIP-39 and BIP-44

Referring to the standards of [BIP-39] and [BIP-44]: a 'master password' consisting of 12 words uniformly selected from a 2048-word dictionary corresponds to 128 bits of entropy, that is then used as ...
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Shannon information entropy value of 64 bit data?

So basically i have a set of float data, its value ranges from -1.3117 to 1.7956 and then i convert this data into 64 bit binary value(assuming it is originally 64 bit double float). After that, i ...
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What Permutation Entropy really is?

I was wondering about what is permutation entropy(PE). Then, I came to know this paper which describes PE. Now, let's assume that we have a pseudorandom permutation that is generated using an entropy ...
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How does the entropy of $r$ influence the security of the one-time pad $F_k(r) \oplus m$?

In an one-time pad scheme, $s \oplus m$ is uniformly random for any $m \in \{ 0,1 \}^\ell$ if $s$ is uniform in $\{ 0,1 \}^\ell$. By the security of PRF, it seems to be secure to replace the truly ...
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How to verify the claim of entropy available made by Linux 4.5?

The Linux kernel has an entropy source and it estimates its amount of bits in the device /proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail. How can I verify that this number ...
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Formula for bits of entropy per bit, when combining bits with XOR

Assume that bits $A$ and $B$ each have .5 bits of entropy per bit. The two-bit result of the concatenation $A‖B$ has 1 bit of entropy total, and it retains the entropy density of .5 bits of entropy ...
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Where can I find a sample of data with a known entropy to see how well NIST SP 800-90B does on it?

I'd like a sample of true random data from a source that has a known entropy. It's not easy to even produce true random data in sufficient quantity --- much less know the entropy of the source. For ...
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Why does it make sense to use min-entropy for measuring cryptographic random data?

Comments on Cryptographic Entropy Measurement seems to challenge the heart of NIST SP 800-90B, which proposes min-entropy as a conservative measure of entropy produced by hardware source. [The idea ...
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What adequate tools are available for estimating entropy?

This question seems to touch on the apparent fact that NIST SP 800-90B is not suitable for estimating entropy produced by sources that are not uniform, despite being IID or non-IID. It also seems ...
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Can I measure entropy through compression only?

Say I have a file containing words from the English language. Not meaningful text, just a repetition of a few words. The original size is 1559454 bytes and it is compressed by a certain program to ...
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What's wrong with NIST SP 800-90B?

NIST SP 800-90B offers various tests for estimating entropy. They also offer an implementation of these tests. With their program called ea_iid, estimating ...
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Is this cumbersome strategy to produce a ridiculously strong password valid?

I'm writing something where somebody wants to have a ridiculously strong password for a file and yet be sure that he will always be able to reconstruct it. The way I have thought of this might be a ...
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Bits of entropy needed to choose a random element from a list?

Suppose I want to choose a random element from a list of size $2^n$, for any integer $n$. (Here, random is to mean an equal probability of selecting every item.) My intuition says I'd need $n$ bits of ...
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Is it absurd to estimate entropy from a sample?

To tell the exact entropy of a source, all I need to do is to use Shannon's formula $\sum -p(i) \lg p(i)$, where $i$ is the $i$-th element of the alphabet emitted by the source. Therefore, the only ...
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Are the GPS coordinates a good source of entropy?

Are the GPS coordinates (latitude and longitude) a good source of entropy? If yes, why? If no, why? The question would investigate on the fact if the GPS location data can be used as source of entropy ...
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How to calculate the entropy for a fixed length random passwords which has restrictions on the type of characters used

If we have a set amount of usable characters, but no other restrictions on the potential characters in a completely random fixed length password, we can easily calculate the entropy by doing: $\log_2(...
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I do many searches but can't find any explanation about “AES analysis using entropy”

I found this scenario in CRYPTOOL2 templates but there is no explanation how entropy is used. There is just a short description "This template shows how to use a brute-force search to attack an ...
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Symmetric key validity hypothesis?

Can I use something like Shannon entropy to determine the suitability of a symmetric key? I found a symmetric key which wasn't generated using a CSPRNG and it had a very low Shannon entropy. I ran an ...
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Practical sources of entropy on an Android device?

What Android API's can be used a practical sources of entropy ? Given the requirement of sourcing entropy on the phone for purposes of seeding a PRNG, what are good options ? Edit: I have a hard ...
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Randomness extractors from Bourgain’s breakthrough- applications?

Some exciting progress to pure mathematics is due to Bourgain Springer - Multilinear Exponential Sums in Prime Fields Under Optimal Entropy Condition on the Sources with applications to randomness ...
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How much entropy do I need to add to passwords if they are NOT used in conjunction with logins

I'm building a system to authenticate users to a website via a single use login token. This token can either be included in links OR typed in directly by the user as a code. Because of that second ...
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How to derive a passphrase from a hash?

I'd like to generate a passphrase derived from a hash fingerprint. The passphrase consists of short and human-pronounceable words from a phonetically-distinct wordlist. The derivation is a one-way ...
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Entropy test vs frequency analysis

I'm currently doing the cryptopals challenges and for it's first set of problems it tells you to use frequency analysis of occurring letters to determine the likelihood of a key guess being correct ...
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A website that identifies an RNG from its output

This happened during a discussion of RNG entropy, and the difficulty of verifying the level of entropy in a long sequence of bits (e.g. a private key.) A colleague of mine told me about a website ...
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How to analyze the off-by-one error's impact on the entropy of the result?

I'm reading Jean-Philippe Aumasson's book Serious Cryptography to learn more about cryptography. On page 37, the author gives an example of Cryptocat's off-by-one error in its PRNG implementation in ...
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Iterative hashing increases number of security bits?

Whatsapp uses 5200 iterations of SHA-512 over user's public key and identity according to WhatsApp Security Whitepaper. I wonder why? According to: Why iterate 5200 times when computing Safety ...
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libgcrypt and rdrand usage

For some reasons, I was looking into libgcrypt source code and found this. If I understand this correctly, while asking to use /dev/random for some bytes, it actually checks first if rdrand is ...
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Losing entropy after re-hashing a hash

Suppose you have a string AAA that was hashed with SHA1 to produce 606ec6e9bd8a8ff2ad14e5fade3f264471e82251. If I rehash ...
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How hard is it to guess a 8 digit PIN?

Say that there are different live situations where you have to select own PIN numbers. Can someone say if it is possible to guess a 8 digit pin within 3 tries, given any methods or resources? Is ...
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What is the formula to calculate password entropy? [closed]

I saw in another thread: Is using 7-8 random words from all words of a language as password a good idea? These calculations: If we assume that English has 171,476 words. Then with 8 words the ...
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Does concatinating mutliple digests of hashes from CSRN result in a CSRN?

Kind of a noob question. Suppose; We generate 1,000 cryptographic-ally secure random numbers & store each of them in an array1. For each number in this array1, we take the hash sha256(CSRN) then ...
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Computing guessing entropy (average rank of the correct key) in attack using deep learning

I am looking for help with some issues that I have about the guessing entropy (GE) in side-channel attacks context. I have read some papers where GE is used as a metric to measure the attack's ...
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Is using AES-256 with a key of less than 256 bits of entropy still quantum-resistant?

Encrypting with AES-256 is widely claimed to be post-quantum secure. But let's take a case where you use an initial key that has less than 256 bits of real entropy. In this example, let's work with a ...
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Doubt about Shannon entropy

Let's consider a random variable X that can produce the output $c$ with probability $1/4$. I was told that $-\log_{2}(\frac{1}{4})$ represents the number of bits needed to represent $c$. But, imagine ...
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What are usable entropy sources in a headless machine without /dev/random or any cryptography API?

If I have a headless machine (no mouse movements, no keyboard presses, or user input), without any cryptography CSPRNG APIs, where can I collect entropy from?
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Given a hash function; assuming domain % codomain = 0 and uniform collision distribution; how is entropy lost by collisions (not output truncation)?

Assuming our domain and codomain both have 4 elements, the uniform distribution of inputs to outputs means the function is injective. It is widely agreed that randomly selecting a domain element ...
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Entropy preservation through cryptographic hash function

Background First, while studying MinEntropy a bit, I came across an NIST paper, "DRAFT SP 800-90B (second draft)," which suggests "twice" the entropy of the underlying block of a cryptographic hash ...
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Estimate password cracking time given Shannon Entropy

Is there some algorithm that, given the Shannon entropy of a string, compute an estimation of the time that an average home computer will take to crack the password? Thank you.
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Does character encoding change entropy?

This is a question I've been wondering for a while. Technically these two strings have the same entropy I believe: ...
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What is the most secure encryption algorithm that keeps the entropy the same or even lowers it? [closed]

On top of my mind comes caesar cipher, but that is not really secure so what is the most secure encryption algorithm that doesn't affect entropy or even lowers it? I know this might not be as ...
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Security implications of using a high entropy password with a low iteration count for a key derivation function

This question is related to my other question, but also this entropy calculation question as well as this article about PBKDF2. It may also be considered as a duplicate of this question, although in ...
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What is a popular entropy source for seeding a CSPRNG, which is actually weak and unreliable? [closed]

Say I want to seed a CSPRNG. What sources are popular, but unreliable? What sources should I even use?
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How can I estimate the amount of entropy (with JavaScript) that I'm seeding a CSPRNG with?

I am trying to determine how much entropy is going into a specific CSPRNG in JavaScript, but I can't seem to find a pure-JS client-side implementation of an entropy estimator. So, I need to find a ...
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Generating nicer diceware passwords without losing entropy

Yes, another one of those "I have found a great password-generation strategy" waiting to be shot down! It seems that although diceware aims to be a secure and user-friendly password generation ...

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