Questions tagged [finite-field]

A finite field is a mathematical construct based on a set of axioms which are held to be true. A number of interesting and useful properties arise from finite fields that makes them particularly suitable for use in cryptography, notably in block ciphers. Questions concerning finite fields should use this tag. Your question may concern finite fields if you are asking about AES, block ciphers or modular arithmetic.

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How can I find the generator of a composite group and $Z_p*$?

I was doing some research on elliptic curves. I know how to find the generator of $Z_p$ (this is a prime group). But I came across the term $Z_p*$ (group containing elements that relatively prime to $...
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576 views

Multiplication by 2 in the Rijndael Galois field

I was studying the mix column transformation in AES and working through an example. $[\mathtt{02}]\cdot[\mathtt{87}]$ - this multiplication works fine in the polynomial form modulo $x^8+x^4+x^3+x+1$. ...
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Does the generator (base point) is preshared between the sender and receiver in elliptic curve cryptography?

Or the elliptic curve and the generator point are known to everyone?
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Comparing elliptic curves over prime fields against EC over binary fields

In which scenarios we go for prime fields or binary fields? Please indicate why we would choose one over the other.
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5k views

How to find the generator of an elliptic curve? [duplicate]

If the elliptic curve has prime order of points, then all of its points are generator. Is this true? If so, how can I find the optimized generator(which generates more number of points) among them?
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Do the elliptic curves over prime fields must always contain prime number of elements (prime order)?

I have gone through one example where i saw a curve defined over some prime number containing non-prime order.
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1answer
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why are non singular curves used in elliptic curve cryptography?

It is not possible to draw tangent at all the points of a singular curve. What is the specialty of this and how it is related to cryptography and elliptic discriminant?
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Why are elliptic curves constructed using prime fields and not composite fields?

I come across this: Numbers mod composite number does not form a field rather it forms a ring and every number has a multiplicative inverse under integer mod prime Maybe these are the reasons ...
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273 views

Elliptic curves with field sizes that not byte-aligned

Why there are abnormal field size like 521, 571, 233, 283 bits in prime and binary fields that are defined by NIST?
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1answer
375 views

The existence of partial homomorphic additive encryption with bit-wise XOR operation

According to Protocol A that was presented in Section 3.1 paper entitled "Some Efficient Solutions to Yao’s Millionaire Problem" (2013). [1] In that protocol they used an assumption that there is ...
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370 views

Advantage of $\operatorname{GF}(2^8)$ over $\mathbb Z/2^8\mathbb Z$ in AES/Rijndael

The Galois Field is used in the mixColumns step of the Rijndael-Algorithm. Over $\operatorname{GF}(2^8)$ (irreducible polynomial: $x^8 + x^4 + x^3 + x + 1$), the ...
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What is the importance of Rcon in Rjindael's key expansion from a security prespective?

I do not see why the Rcon function is important, it looks like a waste of cycles. $$\operatorname{Rcon}(i) = 2^{i-1} \bmod p(x)$$ is in $\operatorname{GF}(2^8)$, ...
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1answer
59 views

Commiting to a linear relation over a finite field

Suppose I have some finite field $k$. I am wondering if there exists a way to commit to a linear relation $a_1x_1 + a_2x_2 + \cdots + a_mx_m = b$ over $k$ , such that I can later reveal that a certain ...
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Finding the cycle set of specific polynomial

I have a school assignment where the problem lies in finding the cycle set of two different polynomials. I tried to look up different tools on how to solve these problems, but I have a hard time ...
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1answer
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How calculation over $GF(2^2)$ is executed?

I was unable to understand the calculation procedure given for $GF(2^m)^2$ in the follwing pdf: http://faculty.washington.edu/manisoma/ee540/EE540finite.pdf In page 21 of the pdf, "Inversion over ...
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396 views

How to determine proportion of quadratic residues in elliptic curve group?

I'm using a 'try and increment' method to hash to an Elliptic Curve point, explained below. With security parameter $k$, EC equation $y^2 = x^3 + ax + b \mbox{ mod } q$, we have: $ u = sha256(\mbox{...
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1answer
380 views

Generating Diffie-Hellman parameters

I'm trying to implement a diffie-hellman key exchange in c++, and I'm struggling with my missing understanding of math / group theory. Let's say I found a large prime number p - how can I find a ...
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Is the additive discrete Logarithm problem always easy in Fields?

While thinking about additive DH key exchanges, I somehow had the idea that additive DH key exchange may always be easy to break, if we are in a field. So here's (directly) the question: In any ...
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1answer
558 views

Short Weierstrass equation is non-singular for not 2 or 3 characteristic

Consider a field $K$ of characteristic $p \neq 2,3$. Consider a curve $E$ over $K$ defined by the equation $y^2 = x^3 + ax + b$. How can I show that: $E$ is not an elliptic curve (it is not ...
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1answer
666 views

How to perform the modular reduce of Rijndael's finite field

I am trying to understand how to calculate the modular reduction of Rijndael's finite field. The example on this page says that {53} • {CA} = {01}, because ...
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Find the generators of multiplicative group of units efficiently?

Say you're give some prime numbers $p_{1},p_{2},p_{3}, p = 2p_{1}p_{2}p_{3} + 1$ (which is assumed to be also prime) and a list of numbers $L$ and you're asked to find the generators of the ...
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1answer
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How to find irreducible polynomial for Barreto-Naehrig curves?

As described in this paper(section 3) to implement pairing on Barreto-Naehrig curves. The prime in their case is $p=82434016654300679721217353503190038836571781811386228921167322412819029493183$ and ...
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1answer
721 views

Shamir Secret Sharing GF(p) or GF(2^8)

I'm implementing Shamir's Secret Sharing Scheme, but I've hit a conceptual roadblock. In Shamir's paper "How To Share A Secret" he creates his shares an a finite field of order p, where p is some ...
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2answers
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In what sense addition modulo $n$ ($n>2$) isn't linear in the field $\mathbb{F}_2$?

I've been reading the Reason why “XOR” is a linear operation, but ordinary “addition” isn’t? question, in which one of the answers states that addition modulo $n$ ($n>2$) is linear in $\mathbb{Z}_n$...
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1answer
142 views

XOR and bilinear form property

I know that $XOR$ is equivalent to modular addition in the field $\mathbb{F}_2 = \{0,1\}$ (is it right?), and thus should satisfy the following property of a bilinear form: $$\oplus(u+v,w) = \oplus(u,...
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1answer
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Elliptic curve and embedding degree

I am new to ECC. I am confused about what the embedding degree in an elliptic curve group represents and what is the impact of its values on the curve and security (small values or large values?) ...
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Homomorphic encryption over finite fields

I'm curious on the following question: let $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$ be a finite field which is an extension of $\mathbb{F}_2$ with order of $n$, is there an encoding scheme $e:=\mathbb{F}_{2^n}\rightarrow \...
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1answer
152 views

How many field operations are needed when you compute kG in elliptic curves with a multiple additions or the double-ans-add-algorithm?

For an assignment, we have to calculate how many field computations are needed to calculate kG in an elliptic curve. They want us to show this for two different ways of calculating kG. The first way: ...
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1answer
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Subscript R notation for the finite fields

I'm trying to understand the notation used in the literature for Pairing-based cryptography. I know (and I hope I've understood it well) from Wikipedia that $\mathbb{Z}_p$ is the finite field of ...
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793 views

How to reverse this hash function?

I have a function that takes an $m$ byte inputs $x_i$ and maps it a 32 byte outputs $y_j$. The hash function is defined as: $$y_j = \sum_{i=1}^{m} (x_i)^{i-1} \pmod {127}$$ The input is restricted ...
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1answer
243 views

Schnorr signature security level as compared to AES/RSA

As per the Schnorr's original paper (1991), The Security Complexity $2^t$: We wish to choose the parameters $p$, $q$ so that forging a signature or an authentication requires about $2^t$ steps by ...
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What is this “finite field cryptography”?

See RFC 5931 § 2.2.1 which talks about "finite field cryptography" as opposed to elliptic curve cryptography and it looks like it is describing the Diffie-Hellman protocol. But Diffie-Hellman is not a ...
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2answers
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How to use the Extended Euclidean algorithm to invert a finite field element?

I was doing some practice on cryptography (I'm new to this topic) and was wondering what the following question even means or what it is asking me to find. I do know how to do Extended Euclidean ...
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1answer
7k views

multiplicative inverse in galois field $2^8$

I am trying to compute the multiplicative inverse in galois field $2^8$.The question is to find the multiplicative inverse of the polynomial $x^5+x^4+x^3$ in galois field $2^8$ with the irreducible ...
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2answers
467 views

Algebraic structures in RSA

Why do we need a field for RSA and what are the two operations in this field? Why can't we have a ring or group for example? Because in a group you also have inverse elements.
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Using quadratic residue to learn the sign of a field element

Given $x' \in \{-x, x\} \bmod q$ (where $q$ could be any prime of my choice), $s$ is a random element in the field, $y = x'\cdot s$ and $y' = \pm\sqrt{(x\cdot s)^2}\bmod q$ (i.e., both solutions to ...
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2answers
536 views

Non primitive lfsr sequence

Given a non-primitive LFSR sequence (i.e number of states is less than $2^n - 1$); how do we find out the the characteristic polynomial? Will Berlekamp-Massey algorithm work in this case? for example;...
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1answer
119 views

How should I define order according to domain parameters in elliptic curve pairing groups?

According to domain parameters, as an example Type 1 pairing domain parameters are ...
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1answer
53 views

Probability of generating same master secret key in Identity-based Encryption

Suppose multiple servers use same IBE domain parameters (I mean same curve description parameters and field) for master secret key setup. Is there any possibility for generating the same system ...
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1answer
815 views

How to perform AES MixColumns as matrix multiplication in GF(2) (boolean values)?

AES MixColumns is done by multiplying a $4 \times 4$ matrix and a column of the AES state (a vector). Addition and multiplication are done in $\operatorname{GF}(2^8)$. In the paper White-box AES, the ...
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1answer
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How to find roots of equation $f(x)=0 \pmod p $, where $p$ is prime number?

$f(x)$is any nth degree equation $n>0$, how to find roots of $f(x)$ over prime modulo.
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1answer
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Computing inverses in a binary field

Please suggest how can i solve the below question What is the inverse of {03} in GF (2^8) with the irreducible polynomial x8+x4+x3+x+1?
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1answer
286 views

How to split up $GF(2^{128})$ into smaller fields?

I've heard that it's possible to split up $GF(2^{128})$ into copies of several smaller fields like $GF(4)$ so as to make the math easier in some cases. How do you do that? I know how it works for ...
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1answer
149 views

Elliptic ElGamal Public Key Cryptosystem doubt

I need an example of Elliptic ElGamal Public Key Cryptosystem. I have been trying with some values but I don't get the right solution. I have $p=13$, the elliptic curve $E:y^2=x^3+11x+7$ and a point ...
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1answer
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Default algorithm for scalar multiplication of elliptic curve points by the MIRACL Library

What is the default algorithm used by the MIRACL-Library [1] for elliptic curve cryptography systems to perform scalar-point multiplication with curves of Weierstrass form satisfying the equation : $y^...
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2answers
954 views

Implementation of ECC over binary field

I am supposed to implement ECC over binary field (in C++) for equations of the type - $y^2 + xy = x^3 + ax + b$, as my project. I wish to include the following features : The user will enter a prime ...
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0answers
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Seeking an implementation of the Satoh algorithm for elliptical curve point counting [closed]

I would be very grateful if someone has an implementation of the Satoh algorithm (Fast Elliptic Curve Point Counting). Can someone point me to practical algorithm implementations or provide some ...
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1answer
899 views

Fast reduction in $GF(2^{128})$ using x86 `PCLMULQDQ`

Modern x86 CPUs support the PCLMULQDQ instruction, which does an XOR-multiply of two 64-bit numbers instead of an add-multiply (i.e. typical arithmetic ...
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1answer
189 views

converting finite field elements to octet strings

I need to convert elements of the finite field $GF(p^k)$, where $p$ is an odd prime, to octet strings. To be more precise, I want to include elliptic curve points over $GF(p^2)$ in a Subject Public ...
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1answer
39 views

Lower defree annihilator of function

Suppose $f=x_0x_2(x_1+1)+x_1x_3(x_0+1)$, annihilator is such function $g$, so that $gf=0$ for all $x$ Intuitively solution(for some reason) is obvious - $g=x_0x_1$, which holds true. (Cloud sagemath ...