# Questions tagged [hash]

A cryptographic hash algorithm is a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to find two inputs with the same output or reconstruct the input from the output.

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### What does the server do on receipt of a one-time-password?

I'm trying to understand this question and I do not understand part of it. I have part of figured out, part of it not. Considering the hash function h(i) = (i + 5) mod 7, used in an implementation ...
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### Can I prove that hash of modified preimage is valid

Assume that hash(X) == Y Alice knows both X and Y Bob only knows Y Alice generates a random nonce N and shares it with Bob. Alice calculates H = hash(X⊕N) and shares H with Bob. Can Alice prove to ...
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### How to encrypt small pieces of data (2 - 4 bytes) within Beacon advertising packet?

I'm developing a medical device that operates under extreme low-power constraints and transmits data with BLE, where every unnecessary millisecond of air time matters. I am developing a Beacon ...
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### Overcome MD5-RSA Signature verification

I asked this question already at the Information Security SO site, but my research on how to overcome this problem ended always on the crypto site. That's why I will try to find some help here :) I ...
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### Round counts and permutation usage for hashing for a Merkle tree

Are there any current recommendations for performant hashing in a Merkle tree? It appears the hash based signatures in Sphincs use Blake2 everywhere (see Table 1 on page 22 of https://sphincs.cr.yp....
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### Build a hash function that returns a digest in $\mathbb{Z}_{N}^{\ast}$

I want to know if there is a way to build a Hash Function in a such way? $\mathcal{H}:{\left\{ {0,1} \right\}^*} \to \mathbb{Z}_{N}^{\ast}$, $N=pq$ and where $p,q$ are primes.
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### How to invert a linear hash function?

My friend is trying to convince me that his linear hash function (with a few bit operations) is secure. Is there a way to disprove this? (Or prove this, but I've read from multiple sources that this ...
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### Parallel hashing function that always gives the same hash despite a variable number of cpus

The title pretty much sums it up :) I'm looking for a hashing algorithm that does not need to be cryptographically secure beyond reducing the number of accidental collisions. There is no need to ...
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### Keys and key-stretching when authenticating requests?

I'm making a REST application and still a bit confused about this issue. basically, to authenticate incoming requests, I give out userId, issued timestamp, expiry timestamp (normally 3 months after ...
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### Example describing Baek and Zheng’s threshold identity-based decryption scheme

I am trying to work through an example of Baek and Zheng’s “threshold identity-based decryption scheme” and I tried a lot to solve this, but somewhere I’m doing something wrong. I hope someone can ...
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### Forward Secrecy with pseudorandom functions

Let $H_1$, $H_2$ be keyed hash functions (e.g. $H_i(x) = SHA_{256}(s_i||x)$ for pseudorandom $s_1$, $s_2$). Let $s_n = H_1^k(s_0)$, $k_n = H_2(s_n)$, where $s_0$ is a secret (pseudorandomly chosen ...
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### advantages of hashing over elliptic curve signatures for a proof of work protocol

I'm trying to create a proof-of-work protocol for a proof-of-concept software, and it's basically something like this: ...
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### Are partial hashes used in cryptographic protocols?

In my question (and answer) about a partial hash code used within a signature application I found out that partial hash codes are sometimes used within protocols with a relatively restricted security ...
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### Convergent encryption has dictionary attack, but why hash function doesn't?

Convergent encryption (CE), $E_k(d)$, is a way to encrypt the data $d$, with the characteristic that the encryption key $k$ is $k=h(d)$, where $h(\cdot)$ is a cryptographic hash function. Consider a ...
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### Accelerated hashing on consumer-grade CPU?

Question is a follow-up to this one. The question was about accelerating SHA1. I am writing an application, where I do have a choice of hash algorithm, as long as it's a strong one. I want to be able ...
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### Is this a correct understanding of Universal Hash Functions?

I'm studying universal hash functions and have been reading several papers but now i'm focusing on Wegman and Carters original paper from 1979 (Universal classes of hash functions) and the H1 class. ...