Questions tagged [homomorphic-encryption]

Cryptosystems which support computation on encrypted data. They might be partially homomorphic (support for one operation such as + or *) or they might be fully homomorphic (any sequence of + and *).

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Fully homomorphic encryption - modulus switching

How to apply modulus switching technique on gorti's enhanced homomorphic encryption schemes to reduce noise occurred during multiple addition and multiplication operations?
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homomorphic encryption function representation

As it known, Homomorphic encryption can be used for privacy-preserving outsourced storage and computation. In various constructions, the computations are represented as either Boolean or arithmetic ...
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Why FHE only needs support for addition and multiplication

For example, given $E(m_1)$ and $E(m_2)$ to the cloud. How does it calculate $E(m{_1}^{m_2})$? Is it related to the claim that any computable function can be represented as a circuit containing or <...
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What is Homomorphic encryption evaluation key

In some homomorphic encryption schemes (e.g Multi-key fully homomorphic encryption report, Computing Blindfolded: New Developments in Fully Homomorphic Encryption), it defines an encryption key, a ...
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How to use the table of recommended parameters and what scheme does it support? [closed]

How is the table of recommended parameters released by Homomorphic Encryption Standards used? http://homomorphicencryption.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/HomomorphicEncryptionStandardv1.1.pdf What ...
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What is labeled program

I've been studying homomorphic encryption. From their instantiations, i read Labeled Homomorphic Encryption (labHE) scheme 1 where it combines the notion of homomorphic encryption with labeled ...
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Implementation of addition in the scheme TFHE

I want to implement the addition operation in a fully homomorphic scheme - TFHE. It contains homomorphic operations on bits: AND, OR, NOT, XOR. Found addition algorithms include left and right shift. ...
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An example of calculation of BGV encryption

Can anyone give an example RLWE BGV encryption with numbers? like where m=8 (ring dimension), q=ciphertext modulus = 33=3*11 with level=2 What are COEFFICIENT and EVALUATION representation ?
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Can someone explain Relinearisation process in FV scheme for Homomorphic Encryption?

I am trying to understand the relinearisation process in FV scheme for Homomorphic Encryption based on R-LWE. Can one someone explain how the homomorphism keys are generated? I have worked out an ...
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How to solve a simple case of a RLWE problem

I've been reading up on the Ring Learning with Errors problem and the proposed attacks, in relation to homomorphic encryption. Some of the literature has been quite difficult to understand - what I ...
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FHE: What is the difference between multiplicative depth and multiplicative level?

I have seen the terms multiplicative depth and multiplicative level while reading Faster homomorphic encryption is not enough: improved heuristic for multiplicative depth minimization of Boolean ...
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What is the main purpose of using Boolean Circuit Model in Homomorphic Encryption?

Why do we use or have Boolean Circuit Model is it because since it uses gates and bits we could adapt it into a hardware model?
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Is there any relationship between Paillier Cryptosystem's random r and other factors

I want to try run an example of Paillier cryptosystem(Algorithm), So i just started with some basic examples, but cannot obtain correct result/decryption. I just change random factor ...
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Where does bootstrapping occur, client side or server side?

In Fully Homomorphic Encryption, where does the bootstrapping procedure performed, in the client-side or the server-side? Also, which side holds the secret key and the public key?
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What are the advantages of using Leveled Homomorphic Encryption over Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption?

Is there a point in using LHE over SHE? From what I understand, SHE is like an extended version of LHE, the only difference is that you limit the depth of circuits that can be evaluated. Therefore, I ...
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How to compute the inner product on encrypted vector by using a third party?

I want to compute the inner product of two vectors on a third party, i.e. $f(x) \cdot f(y) = x \cdot y$ where $x$ and $y$ are two vectors. However, I do not want the third party knows the real value ...
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How re-encryption can be done through RSA

Both RSA and Elgamal have homomorphic properties. So both can re-encrypt the ciphertext. Re-encryption with Elgamal works as seen here. How does re-encryption work using RSA? What modification / ...
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Are there any advantages and disadvantages with what type of model of homomorphic computation is used? [closed]

I am curious about the advantage or disadvantage in using the different models of homomorphic computation (boolean circuits, modular arithmetic, approximate number arithmetic). Are there any specific ...
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How to implement GSW13 using Helib or SEAL?

I want to implement the homomorphic encryption scheme proposed in GSW13, and make some changes to it, but seems that there is no library that has already been implemented it. Since this is a ...
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Do Partially Homomorphic Encryption schemes also suffer from noise overflow?

Do PHE schemes in general also suffer from noise overflow problem?
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Classification of BFV and CKKS scheme?

I would just like to ask what is the classification of both BFV and CKKS scheme are they Somewhat Homomorphic or Fully Homomorphic? Brakerski/Fan-Vercauteren (BFV) [Brakerski12, FV12, BEHZ16, HPS18] ...
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In using Boolean Circuits model of Computation in Homomorphic Encryption why is is considered fast?

I am currently doing some reading on Homomorphic Encryption for research purposes and based on my reading using the Boolean Circuit Model of Computation specifically in regards to Fast Fully ...
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Are there any symmetric Partial Homomorphic Encryption Schemes?

Note that I am asking specifically for Partial Homomorphic Encryption (PHE) schemes and not Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption (SME) schemes. I believe there are several SHE schemes that are symmetric ...
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Is there FHE (fully homomorphic encrpytion) for string/text processing?

I had a quick look at FHE libraries like SEAL, HeLib, and Palisade and they deal with addition or multiplication of encrypted data. Is there a FHE that deals with string? If no, is that because it is ...
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Simple explanation of CKKS scheme

I'm searching for a (preferably simple) explanation of the Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song scheme for fully homomorphic encryption. All I did find so far is the original paper, which is rather difficult to ...
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How exactly is TFHE secure?

TFHE (Fully Homomorphic Encryption over Torus) seems to be a state-of-the-art form of homomorphic encryption. But, I got a bit confused. I have recently read the paper Fully Homomorphic Encryption ...
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Is it possible to enhance white-box cryptography security by homomorphic encryption?

Background: Let's discussed based on published symmetric white-box crypto only, such as Chow's white-box AES. I only know basic concepts/objectives of homomorphic encryption, such as PHE and FHE. ...
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Can the person who decrypts a homomorphically encrypted value know what operations were run?

I'm looking at the SEAL library but I'm trying to figure out what happens in a certain use case. For example: Alice encrypts the number 123456 homomorphically and sends it to Bob. Bob adds 25 and ...
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Whether ramp secret sharing possess additive homomorphism?

Ramp secret sharing replaces the random coefficients in original Shamir secret sharing with original data to be shared. In such a case, all the coefficients in the polynomial evaluation will be ...
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Secure Computation with TTP using Ring-LWE Homomorphic Encryption

I was working with secure outsourced computation for multi-party computation in which security is assured by ring-LWE based asymmetric homomorphic encryption in the semi-honest model. Is it feasible ...
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How can I prove that the plaintext of an elgamal ciphertext is the discrete log of an element?

Is there any (efficient) method to prove that the plaintext of an ElGamal ciphertext is the discrete log of an element? In the scenario I concerned, I have an El Gamal key pair $(pk, sk) = (g^y, y)$....
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comparison in pallier homomorphic encryption?

For a project I am using homomorphic encryption with the pallier cryptosystem and I have to compare two values... Can this be done using homomorphic encryption? ...
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Is it possible to change the generator without knowing the private key used?

For example, prover sends P = xG and verifier somehow sends back P = xH without learning x. Is this possible?
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Gentry-Halevi’s Fully-Homomorphic Encryption and hermite factor

In section 7.2, page 18 in Chen-Nguyen paper regarding BKZ 2.0, they point out different Hermite factors related to Gentry-Halevi FHE. More precisely, it is said that the critical Hermite factor for ...
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Does such cryptographic scheme exists?

Is there any multi-key additive homomorphic encryption scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography? Meaning adding encrypted values encrypted with different public keys and decrypt the total sum with ...
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how do we calculate set intersection using homomorphic encryption?

I am new to this field. I want to learn how homomorphic encryption can be used for PSI. I am aware of other SMC protocols but I never understood how to use schemes like Paillier for PSI calculation. ...
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Homomorphic modulo

What homomorphic cryptographic scheme should I use to perform modular reduction? I want an encryption scheme along with an operation $\otimes$ such that $$c = Enc(m) \otimes Enc(d) \Rightarrow Dec(...
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Homomorphic/Paillier crypto system for use case?: overflow for multiple counter exponent possible? Different cipher factor needed all the time?

Recently I read about homomorphic cryptosystem. They might solve a problem. To do this there need to be some modifications from standard version. Using Paillier here but a solution for other also ...
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Can binomial distribution be used to sample noise for Ring-LWE-based homomorphic encryption?

Homomorphic encryption schemes based on Ring-LWE need to sample the noise terms from a discrete probability distribution $\chi$ over the integers with support $[-B,B]$. For example, the Fan-...
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Comparison on Gentry's Fully homomorphic Encryption? [duplicate]

This topic is very new to me. Is it possible to do comparison on the encrypted data(data is encrypted using Gentry's FHE)? If so, how can it be done?
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Where can I find open source code for Encryption Switching Protocol?

The concept of Encryption Switching Protocols was introduced in CRYPTO. I was wondering if there is any pseudo-implementation of the protocol available or can I get some insights on how to implement ...
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How does the 'Flatten' function reduce the coefficients of a vector/matrix?

Seen here, at the bottom of page 5, Flatten() is defined as: Flatten(a)=BitDecomp(BitDecomp$^1$(a)) For an n-dimensional vector a$=(a_{1,0},...,a_{1,l-1},...,a_{k,0},...,a_{k,l-1})$. Where $a_{i,j}$ ...
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Design a OT-based Private Set Intersection protocol to obtain $A \cap B \cap C$?

This is a tutorial question for a Foundations of Privacy computer science course, I'm unsure on how to tackle it because we haven't talked much about these particular topics in class. (a) Assume ...
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Order of g in Paillier Scheme

I'm trying to understand the Paillier Scheme but there's something I can't understand in the keyGen algorithm : Ensure ${\displaystyle n}$ divides the order of $g$ by checking the existence of the ...
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How to break fully homomorphic encryption over integer algorithm with known cipher of same integer?

If I do encryption and decryption like this: Encryption: $\text{E}(m) = (r \times p_1+m) \bmod N$ Decryption: $\text{D}(\text{E}(m)) = ((r \times p_1 + m) \bmod N) \bmod p_1 = m$ where, $r$ = ...
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SEAL-CKKS max multiplication depth

I am trying to understand how SEAL-CKKS scheme works and I wonder what multiplication level can we achieve using this scheme? Like 100 possible?
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How can a node establish pairwise shared key with other nodes using its own polynomial share together with other's public values?

A server has a symmetric bivariate polynomial $ F(x, y) = \sum_{{i,j}=0}^{t-1}a_{i,j}x^iy^j$ $\in GF(p)[X, Y] $ of degree $t-1$. For simpliciy, $ F(x, y) = a_{0,0}+a_{1,0} x+a_{0,1}y+ a_{1,1}xy$ mod ...
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Are there any homomorphic first and second preimage resistant (cryptographic) hash functions?

Are there any homomorphic cryptographic hash functions that satisfy $\text{H(A + B)} = \text{H(A)} + \text{H(B)}$ which maintaining pre-image resistance
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Blinding factor SEAL

For a protocol, I need to blind a ciphertext. I am not sure how to choose the blinding factor. How should I choose the range? What should I consider to offer security? I am using CKKS scheme, the one ...
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Is OTP with homomorphic encryption trivial?

If my key size is as large as the data I'm encoding, is it trivial to devise a theoretically secure homomorphic encryption scheme for integers (or else any finite/infinite group with order) that ...