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# Questions tagged [homomorphic-encryption]

Cryptosystems which support computation on encrypted data. They might be partially homomorphic (support for one operation such as + or *) or they might be fully homomorphic (any sequence of + and *).

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### Can we use PHE or SWHE instead of bilinear pairings in ZK-SNARKS?

In ZK Snarks bilinear pairings are used to do "encrypted computation". I was wondering if we can use Partial Homomorphic Encryption or Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption instead of bilinear pairings. Can ...
160 views

### How does the polynomial modulus work in the Fan-Vercauteren scheme?

I'm reading this introductory blog on the Fan-Vercauteren scheme and there are a few things I don't understand about polynomial moduli. The author uses practical examples: Because we are ...
109 views

### Using error-correcting codes for the bootstrapping procedure of Fully Homomorphic Schemes

In the context of Fully Homomorphic Schemes, we use a technique called "bootstrapping" to refresh the ciphertext, by evaluating homomorphically the decryption circuit with an encrypted version of the ...
471 views

### Is there a way of maintaining malleability in a homomorphic encryption system while making it infeasible to perform chosen ciphertext attacks?

Is there a way of maintaining malleability in a homomorphic encryption system while making it infeasible to perform chosen ciphertext attacks? I have been reading about homomorphic encryption and ...
174 views

### Two plaintexts map to the same ciphertext in fully homomorphic encryption?

In standard symmetric encryption, we can create an encryption scheme, in which two plaintexts $x_1, x_2$ map to the same ciphertext $y$, by choosing appropriate keys $k_1,k_2$ (!). The most simple ...
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### Is there a partially homomorphic cryptosystem without an inverse (addition without subtraction, multiplication without division)?

I am learning about partially homomorphic cryptography, and was interested to see if there was a system such that one operation was homomorphic, but its inverse was not. For example, if I have two ...
2k views

### Re-encrypting a message and proving that the message has not changed

Is there a method that allows for re-encryption of a message in a way that allows observers who only have access to the two cipher texts to prove that the plain text message is the same in each? More ...
138 views

### Interactive Homomorphic Encryption

Let's say that I have a plain computational process that consists of several divisions and I do not want to do it with non-interactive homomorphic encryption. I would like to ask how can I call this ...
160 views

### Homomorphic properties of Paillier

I'm curious about the homomorphic properties of Paillier. So, basically if I have $\textsf{Dec}(\textsf{sk}, \textsf{Enc}(\textsf{pk}, \alpha) \cdot \textsf{Enc}(\textsf{pk}, \alpha^{-1}))$, I will ...
81 views

### Binary representation of the inverse of a big number [closed]

In one of the first FHE schemes by Gentry, the KeyGen algorithm is defined as follow: For a security parameter $\lambda$, set $N = \lambda ^ 2, P = \lambda ^ 2, Q = \lambda ^ 5$. KeyGen$(\lambda)$: ...
569 views

### Representing a function as FHE circuit

I am actually trying to study homomorphic encryption (on lattices) but I'm facing a problem. Every paper that I have read so far talk about writing the function to evaluate on ciphertexts as a circuit,...
65 views

### How HomNAND has been computed in Leo Ducas and Daniele Micciancio's FHEW?

In section 4.1 of Leo Ducas and Daniele Micciancio's paper FHE Bootstrapping in less than a second, HomNAND has been computed as follows:  (\textbf{a}, b) = HomNAND((\textbf{a}_0, b_0),(\textbf{a}_1,...
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### Verification of data on an untrusted remote storage server

I was looking at tahoe-lafs which accepts a file, encrypts it, does erasure coding on it which generates n shares and then distributes it over the storage servers. The distribution is Share 1 = Server ...
103 views

### Verifiable secret sharing - Benaloh scheme; some doubts not answered earlier

I reviewed the paper "Secret sharing homomorphisms: keeping shares of a secret secret" by J.C. Benaloh yesterday and I had some difficulty understanding his version of verifiable secret sharing to ...
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### Bitwise homomorphic encryption

I am fairly new to HE and would like a short clarification on how exactly integers are securely encrypted using bits. The main idea is that one encrypts each bit value and represents the n bit number ...
292 views

### How to compute secure sum using secure multparty computation?

Suppose there are three voters $P$, $Q$ and $R$, and each will vote only on one candidate out of $X$, $Y$ or $Z$, with a 6 bit vote vector corresponding to $X$, $Y$ and $Z$ respectively (with 2 bits ...
167 views

### Is there any way to check hash of homomorphic encrypted data?

I need some algorithm that satisfies: H - hash function Enc - encryption function (using public key) M - secret data $Enc(H(M)) = H(Enc(M))$ Let this system exist: the First person has a secret ...
209 views

### Chinese Remainder Theorem and Elgamal

I am studying an encryption scheme which is Elgamal-like where I think CRT can help optimise the encryption and decryption but I am not sure if I am applying CRT the correct way. I have a cyclic ...
120 views

I had asked a question related to this before: Oblivious Decryption: Decrypting with a private key, without knowing the message @rikhavshah has an answer, which I would like to discuss the security ...
651 views

### Why is Approximate GCD a hard problem?

There are many Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Integers schemes whose security is based on the intractability of the Approximate GCD (AGCD) problem. The paper Algorithms for the Approximate ...
161 views

### Oblivious Decryption: Decrypting with a private key, without knowing the message

I’m trying to devise a protocol, complimentary to a private-set-intersection, involving three parties, namely Alice, Bob and Charlie. Alice has a public and a private key. And receives website logs ...
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### Cryptographic Counter

Good morning, I state that I am not an expert in cryptography. I'm studying the feasibility of a project which looks like requires a kind of cryptographic counter that behave similarly to the one in ...
53 views

### In Multi-party communication, how can I find that one encrypted value is negative or not?

I'm using Pailier Cryptosystem as an additive homomorphic system in my scenario. I have two parties: Alice and Bob. Alice has one pair of (SK, Pk) keys. She encryptes one value using her public key ...
2k views

### What is the purpose of Homomorphic encryption? [closed]

Homomorphic cryptography is a kind of cryptography that allows you to do special math operations on the ciphertext, and the maths performed are identical to the obvious ones. For example, one person ...
151 views

### Paillier encryption problem when q or p divides r

I am having a problem with Paillier encryption as described on Wikipedia. It says to pick $0 < r < n$, where $n=pq$ for large, equally sized primes $p$ and $q$. However, I've been testing ...
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### Bijective encryption function in Paillier cryptoststem

In Paillier cryptoststem many ciphertexts can correspond to the same plaintext. How can I modify the scheme so to make the correspondence between ciphertexts and plaintexts a one to one correspondece? ...
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### Legendre conditions on the factors of the fundamental negative discriminant to minimize the 2-Sylow subgroup of the class group

If we know the prime factorisation of the fundamental negative discriminant $\Delta_K$, say $\Delta_K=p_1\cdot p_2 \cdots p_n$, then we are guaranteed that at least $2^{n-1}\mid h_K$, the class number ...