Questions tagged [key-exchange]

Key exchange protocols allow two parties to produce a secret session key over a public channel.

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Key Exchange vs Key Encapsulation

From what I understand, the steps of a key exchange protocol are Alice and Bob each encrypt something using their public key and private key and send the result to each other Alice and Bob each do ...
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In the SIKE known answer tests, why is there only one secret key?

I'm looking at the SIKE known answer tests and am realizing that I'm confused on all the different terms in a Diffie-Hellman key exchange. From the Wikipedia page, I would think there would be a ...
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Security of Half-Key Key Management Scheme

I am interested in algorithms that consume as less space available on a memory, for low consuming power devices such as wireless nodes. From a search I have found this article here: https://dl.acm....
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How keeloq keyfob exchange key with receiver in the first place?

After reading a lot of articles and the microship maunal for keeloq IC, I think I understand how the encryption and decrytion works. If I understand correctly, however, the decryption require the ...
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DH Key Exchange Protocol

Since I am not able to comment under the topic, I would like to ask here why in question 2 old post, we cannot distinguish the two distributions, even with unlimited computational power? Also, what ...
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Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol with finite field GF(2^5)

In a Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol, the system parameters are given as follows: finite field $GF(2^5)$ defined with irreducible polynomial $f(x) = x^5 + x^2 + 1$ and primitive element $\alpha= ...
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Is the first Nonce exchange between Alice and Bob in Needham-Schroder key exchange protocol redundant?

For the Needham-Schroder protocol, assuming Alice and Bob are both able to guarantee each other's public keys (e.g. through a Certificate authority), the protocol is 1) A sends to B: $E_{publicB} [...
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Why RSA-KEM is more secure than Textbook-RSA?

I am studying RSA-KEM but I can not see why it should be as secure as padding RSA messages (e.g with RSA-OAEP) when exchanging a key between two parties (say A and B). It is easy to see that Textbook-...
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Key-Agreement & Key-Transport for Symmetric Authentication System

Question: I want to know what kind of Master Key sharing process is pursuit on Symmetric encryption environments (strictly symmetric, also in the key sharing scheme). As I am aware there are several ...
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Is there value in performing signature during key exchange?

I looked around the net, however I couldn't see anything authoritative on this. If one is using something like libsodium to perform key exchange (using x25519), is there value in using Ed25519/...
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NTRU Bilateral Key Exchange

With the NTRU scheme, is the key exchange only done by encrypting a symmetric key with the recipients public key (+ authentication) or can something similar to DH/ECDH be done, where public ...
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Key exchange and authentication using libhydrogen

I have been able to exchange session keys on two devices using Libhydrogen's Key exchange using the N variant method. I also want to authenticate both devices to have some protection against the Man ...
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Is a Diffie-Hellman scheme in which parties always use the same public keys vulnerable?

I have come across a couple of protocols in which the public keys of the parties are static across conversations, even with different users. Something about this makes my hairs stand on end but I can'...
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Simply using password as a third “private key” for PAKE

I'm reading through the development of PAKE protocols, starting with EKE and SPEKE, their potential pitfalls, and what motivates their protocol choices. And I've been wondering, what is wrong with the ...
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Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange attack on small secret keys [closed]

The question as the title suggests is based on the key exchange with Diffie-Hellman protocol and is something like this: *"We have intercepted a communication between Alice and Bob: intercepted-...
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Is there a key exchange protocol that requires only one message?

Say I want to exchange a secret with someone, but I only get to send one message to the other person, and then we encrypt with that secret. Diffie-Hellman and ECDH require multiple messages to be sent ...
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HMAC based Key exchange

Alice and Bob need to share public keys to sign/verify ephemeral keys. They have a secret key $K$. Alice generates a 32 bytes random number $A$, computes $\operatorname{HMAC-SHA256}(K, M||A)$ and ...
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Is there any problem to reuse the prime p, g and a in Diffie-Hellman?

Suppose I always reuse p, g and a in DH and there is someone monitoring my communication. Is there a way this person can use this to perform some kind of attack to me? I believe that reusing p and g ...
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Is CECPQ2 forward secure?

Is the CECPQ2 key exchange, as deployed by Google[1] and Cloudflare[2] in TLS 1.3 forward secure against quantum computers? I know that it is using HRSS+SKY as the post-quantum part of the key ...
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Why are PAKE protocols not widely used?

While there are plenty of PAKE protocols, especially those augmented ones which are practical in C/S model, actually they seem to be not widely used. Even TLS-Standardized SRP, the most popular one ...
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Is this PGP key exchange secure?

I am currently trying to create a secure key exchange between two parties. I have a good implementation of PGP that works well for my app, but my DH is really slow and doesn't work well; so I was ...
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Prevent a Man-In-The-Middle attack whilst transmitting a PSK for first time

I'm developing a network where two parties that want to join both compute ephemeral ECC keys for a key exchange, to create an encrypted connection. I plan to authenticate these keys by signing them ...
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Ensure Data Integrity In An ECDH Key Excange

Been playing around with the inner workings of onion routing and I have a problem. If I wanted to send the 2nd node of a relay network an ephemeral ECC public key, it has to go through node 1, so that ...
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Size of Key Material of TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA

What is the size of key material required for generating MAC keys, encryption keys and IV when use TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA ? How to calculate it?
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Is this pairing scheme for establishing trust between two devices with self-signed TLS certs secure from MITM?

Assume two devices (A and B) with self-signed TLS certificates (this part can't change). We want these devices to trust each other. One way to do this is to simply copy A's cert over to B's allowed ...
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Calculate shared key having A public Key and B private Key (Diffie Hellman)

I cannot understand how this works. $\text{A}_\text{public} = g^a \bmod p$ $\text{B}_\text{private} = \text{B}$ $\text{g} = p$ I also have $p$, I need to get the shared key, that I know both $\...
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Decrypting arbitrary numbers with RSA

I want to construct a hash-chain where I want to share millions of small AES-128 keys with Bob over a period of time. Bob should not be able to predict the future keys if he knows the past keys. I ...
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TLS_DH_RSA_* cipher, how can static DH use an RSA certificate?

I am confused about TLS_DH_RSA_* ciphers because, for DH to work, the server certificate has to include a DH public key, but for server authentication the server certificate needs an RSA public key. ...
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86 views

Is it safe to use shared secret as a symmetric key in one way communication?

I have a one way communication from one device to another, which needs to be secure and there cannot be any feedback in the other direction. Now both sides happen to have ECC P-256 key pairs and they ...
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Understanding need for PKI

For simplicity let's say I only have RSA and AES on my hands and I want Alice to talk with Bob over a secure channel. With secure I am implying no MITM and Alice and Bob know they are talking to each ...
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Struggling to understand Perfect Forward Secrecy

From the definition on Wikipedia: In cryptography, forward secrecy (FS), also known as perfect forward secrecy (PFS), is a feature of specific key agreement protocols that gives assurances that ...
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How to handle multiple key-agreements

If I would use two different key-agreements e.g. SIDH and ECDH how would I handle these both derived keys? Is there a different between XOR or SHA-256 the two keys? (Would one reduce the level of ...
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Why are the session keys in DHKE for different values of 'a' the same?

In a DHKE scheme with the a prime p = 467. an element g = 4. The element 4 has order 233 and generates thus a subgroup with 233 elements. after Computing the common key for A. a=400, b=134 B. a=167, b=...
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Calculation of failure probability in basic Ring-LWE-DH key agreement

This is the basic unauthenticated Ring-LWE-based Diffie-Hellman key exchange, based on Peikert's Ring-LWE KEM: (from BCNS15) Alice and Bob have shared public polynomial $a$ randomly drawn from $R_q = ...
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Other than an exponent greater than 1, what are the considerations when creating a random 256-bit private key using Diffie Hellman?

Let's assume that I choose the bits for my 256-bit private key exponent by flipping a coin 256 times. Are there any other issues, besides the randomness of the 256-bit private key to consider? For ...
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Complete Attack on RLWE Key Exchange with reused keys, without signal leakage

I am studying a research paper "Complete Attack on RLWE Key Exchange with reused keys, without signal leakage" . On page number 21 to 28, there is toy example explaining the scheme. I am unable to ...
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SIDH: key agreement - why does it work?

In SIDH both parties agree on the key in following way: Alice calculates a kernel $R = mPB + nQB$ Thanks to Velu formulas (and further improvements), she can now compute isogeny $\phi_a$ She uses $\...
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Can I use XOR to establish a longer shared secret?

SIKEp434 can only be used to encapsulate a 16 byte (128 bit) shared secret key. Most encryption algorithms these days (specifically (X)ChaCha20) require a 256 bit key to be secure, especially in a ...
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From 2-round key-exchange protocol to a public-key encryption scheme CPA-secure

I have to solve this exercise and I really could use some help: Show that any 2-round key-exchange protocol (that is, where each party sends a single message) satisfying $Definition$ $9.1$ can be ...
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Key exchange without an underlying semigroup

I am wondering whether there is a general reformulation of perfect forward secrecy for 2 party key exchange in 2 messages using semigroups. I am looking for references, which would discuss such ...
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Generate a per data shared secret vs per session

I have read about SSL that they persist the shared-secret for the entire session. However, someone in stackoverflow suggested a way of generating a shared secret for each data to send and then send ...
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How to prevent Public Key from being replaced entirely?

I am using RSA to sign my license file using Microsoft CNG API. I am signing the license file and sending the file with the <...
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What is the difference between forward secrecy and key freshness?

Is all random private key that generating a unique session key is both forward secrecy and key freshness?
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Why is the strength of an Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) half the size of the prime field size?

I've looked around and couldn't find a direct answer. As a general rule, I've read from various sources (here here, and here) that the strength of an elliptical curve key is half of the size of the ...
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Diffie-Hellman and secret key size

How can one guarantee that the generated DH secret key is of certain length? Say 256bit. Actually, prime length is not enough since the remainder of the last process, the modulus, may result in too ...
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Decentralized / Distributed Private Key Generation between Untrusted Parties?

I found an interesting concept in this paper, page 13, (Link to the paper) called "Decentralized private key generation", as follows: "Decentralized private key generation – Multiple Enigma nodes ...
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How to exchange a common key to a group of person using Elliptic-curve Diffie–Hellman (ECDH)? [duplicate]

In ECDH, when two persons want to share private keys, they first select a point $G$ on the elliptic curve and after that, each of them picks a random integer $a$ and $b$, respectively, and multiply ...
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How to Understand Authenticated Key Exchange?

I am reading some articles about key exchange. I know classic key exchange, such as Diffie-Hellman key exchange. This type of algorithm is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. However, when using a ...
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Can I do a forward secure half-round ephemeral-static ECDH?

In the context of the project we are working on recently, we would like to enable users to "leave a message" to someone on the Internet securely. Our setting is as below: ECC key pairs for open ID ...
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If 1 can be a random number in Diffie-Hellman Algorithm

I've done some calculations and Diffie-Hellman Algorithm worked for all chosen random numbers except $1$. In the description of the algorithm, I can't find information that the random number has to be ...