Questions tagged [key-size]

Key size is the size measured in bits of the key used in a cryptographic algorithm.

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118
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7answers
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How big an RSA key is considered secure today?

I think 1024 bit RSA keys were considered secure ~5 years ago, but I assume that's not true anymore. Can 2048 or 4096 keys still be relied upon, or have we gained too much computing power in the ...
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1answer
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Can you use a dynamic key and data size for KMAC?

I've asked before if some kind of canonical encoding should be used on the input parameters of SHA-3 before it could be used as replacement for HMAC. However, if I read the current NIST specifications ...
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1answer
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What are the public key and output sizes for the four remaining PQC KEM candidates?

Currently there are only 4 direct candidates left that provide KEM. Generally performance seems to be "OK" for those candidates. However, the key and encapsulated key sizes (i.e. the output ...
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2answers
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How do I get the equivalent strength of an ECC key?

I know how to calculate the comparable symmetric strength of an RSA modulus: calculate the running time for a field sieve. This is how NIST gives approximate symmetric sizes for asymmetric algos in ...
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2answers
168 views

Is there any cryptographic scheme with block size more than 128 bit

I am asking this question out of curiosity if there are any cryptographic algorithm that has a block length more that 128 bit. I am new to cryptography and I didn't know any. AES 128, 192, 256 all ...
19
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1answer
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What is the history of recommended RSA key sizes?

One can find up to date recommended key sizes for RSA at NIST sp800-131A for example. In short, it suggests a key size of at least 2048 bits. Is it possible to find a history of recommended key sizes ...
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0answers
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What grade of protection does a private key's passphrase provide at best?

Does a passphrase with high entropy provide the same level of security as the private key itself? General scenario: An attacker has access to a private key file that is protected with a passphrase ...
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3answers
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Is 80 bits of key size considered safe against brute force attacks?

I came across the KATAN family of ciphers for small domain input blocks. They cipher arbitrary block lengths: 32, 48 and 64, but their key size is 80 bits only. Is 80 bits of key size considered ...
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1answer
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AES with small and large string keys

byte *key; String skey = "abcde" If I convert skey to bytes and uses it to encrypt AES 128 bit, 192, and 256 bits. ...
0
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1answer
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Cryptography standards on key size

There are many limits on key size. As far as I know 56 bit in USA and 40 bits in India without license. On the other hand much higher 128 bit or 1024 or 4096 bit for banking and other purposes. So ...
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5answers
380 views

Is there any existing cipher capable of scaling from a 1 bit key up to a one-time-pad?

We have ciphers that handle small amounts of entropy, such as a 256 bit key for AES; and we have one time pads for enciphering 1:1 entropy, such as a 1GB key for a 1GB file if you could ever harvest ...
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4answers
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Security strength of RSA in relation with the modulus size

NIST SP 800-57 §5.6.1 p.62–64 specifies a correspondence between RSA modulus size $n$ and expected security strength $s$ in bits: ...
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1answer
229 views

Bruteforcing a symmetric cipher [duplicate]

I don't understand how we could bruteforce a symmetric cipher. Let's take AES with a key size of $128$ as an example. It means that there are $2^{128}$ possible keys, and as many ways to decrypt a ...
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1answer
52 views

Calculating symmetric key bit strength

16 byte key where each byte is in range 0-255, generated using cryptograhic PRNG will be believed to have 128 bit strength. What would be a bit strength of a key generated using same quality PRNG, ...
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1answer
59 views

The order of reading bits in blocks

Let's say I have a cryptographic algorithm that encrypts on 128-bit blocks and makes 20 rounds. Each round has its own keys (one of 72 keys per round). We read blocks before each round. But we're ...
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0answers
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Chaining signatures of different parties

My question might be quite beginner, so please pardon my ignorance :) So, assume there are 10 parties, each with their own keypairs. There is a message $M$ that is passed from one party to the next. ...
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1answer
127 views

What is the current security level of an algorithm?

I was reading a paper of some years ago about a cryptography and a phrase got my attention. We want to ensure a security level of at least $2^{80}$ I know that $2^{80}$ was used as rule of thumb ...
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1answer
128 views

How to calculate time needed for decryption of 64-bit key

I am having trouble figuring out how long it takes to decrypt a 64-bit key, given that a computer can do 1 billion trials per second. I know that there are $2^{64} = 1.844 \times 10^{19}$ possible ...
0
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1answer
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Implementation of a decryption mixnet, and problems with the size of the key

I've been studying decryption mixnets, in the context of e-voting and stealth networks. Let's describe it in a very simplified way. The concept is pretty simple. A message M is forwarded through ...
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5answers
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Why does the recommended key size between symmetric and asymmetric encryption differ greatly?

In various articles it is mentioned that for secure communications, the recommended key sizes are 128-bit key size for symmetric encryption (which makes it $2^{128}$ possible keys?) and 2048-bit key ...
0
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0answers
81 views

“16-bit DES encryption algorithm”

I need to use encryption software from PSpice for my SPICE model. In a user guide on page 71 they claim to use a "16-bit DES encryption algorithm". According to the wiki DES is using a 64-...
3
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0answers
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Key strength comparison: symmetric key vs RSA/DH key

I came across different reputable sources quoting different equivalent symmetric key strengths for RSA/DH keys. This NIST paper (page 67) states the following offer corresponding security strenghts (...
3
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1answer
123 views

Do ciphers with a key size of 64 bits still have use under very limited attack models?

If we have a very performance critical interactive session, like a video game, running on a trusted platform (video game console). If our goal is to prevent exfiltration of up to date information (...
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0answers
42 views

Symmetric algorithm effective key length

If we have a symmetric algorithm with key length $m$ bit, and we do a 5 time encryption with it. How much will it be its effective key length.
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2answers
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How much can we compress RSA public keys?

I am wondering to what degree we can define an RSA variant, with a security argument that it is as safe as regular RSA with a given modulus size $m$ (e.g. $m=2048$), in which the public key has a ...
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2answers
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Why the output of elliptic curve based cryptosystems is smaller than the ordinary public key cryptosystems?

I am trying to understand how much the output of elliptic curve based cryptosystems (for example elliptic curve ElGamal) is smaller than the ordinary public key cryptosystems. I know that the ...
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1answer
197 views

How to calculate RSA Key Size correctly starting from 384 bits to 15360 bits or beyond 15360 bits

Hello fellow experts here, I am new to cryptography. Recently I looked into RSA Key Size (Microsoft RSA library), it actually describes that the minimal key length required is 384 bits and maximum ...
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2answers
157 views

How to properly cypher 16 bytes message containing a CRC checksum?

This question arose from a new context under early developments. If cryptographic operations are not well chosen or badly sequenced, please do notice it along your answer or comments: I am a layman in ...
2
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1answer
92 views

RSA encryption secure mode, plaintext length limit vs. key length

I have two questions about RSA encryption to confirm: Assume use RSA 2048-bit key pair, what is the secure encryption mode? Are ECB / OAEPWithSHA-256AndMGF1Padding and ECB / OAEPWithSHA-...
0
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1answer
43 views

Disk storage of RSA and DSA keys

I have generated one RSA-2048 signing key and one DSA-2048 signing key, using gpg command gpg --full-generate-keys I would expect the key to have size 2048 bits, ...
5
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1answer
6k views

How Secure is gpg Command Using Symmetric AES-256 From Being Cracked

How secure is any data encrypted using the following command: gpg -o *encrypted_output_file_name* --symmetric --cipher-algo AES256 *file_to_be_encrypted* Can ...
5
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1answer
102 views

Use large key size for RC4 to avoid RC4 bias

I saw a question on StackOverflow where RC4 was initialized by a 1024 bit key (with 2048 the maximum key size, if I'm not mistaken). Will such a large key size possibly solve any of the bias of the ...
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0answers
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Prove that for key with $n$ dimensions, the order of the key is $k!$

I need to prove, that for a key with $n$ dimensions, they order of the key would be $n!$ and to prove that, I need to use mathematical induction: $$\text{Let n = 1} \Rightarrow {1} \text{ if there ...
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3answers
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Recommended key size for DKIM

What is the recommended key length for DKIM? I'm currently thinking about a 1024-bit key vs. a 2048-bit one. From the crypto point of view for RSA, 2048 or 4096 bits is clearly recommended--no ...
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1answer
123 views

Why are AES keys increments of 64-bits?

Why are AES keys increments of 64-bits? Rijndael, which subsequently became AES, allowed key increments in 32-bits (128, 160, 192, 224, and 256 bits). However, AES made it 128, 192, or 256. My guess ...
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1answer
115 views

AES-256 mix column code generating output bigger than 8 bits [closed]

I'm implementing AES-256 in JavaScript with block size 128 bits and I understand every thing about AES except MixColumn transformation. So I copied this code from ...
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1answer
1k views

Choice between AES-128 and AES-256 for password protection in MS Office

Why are we still using the default of AES-128 when password protecting a Microsoft Word document. My answer is and always has been - because its good enough and MS don't recommend changing to AES-256. ...
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3answers
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How confident can we be that nobody will crack a 128-bit key?

In a context involving a block cipher like AES-128, excluding quantum computers, cryptanalytic breakthrough on AES and implementation attacks (poor TRNG, DPA..), and wrench, how confident can we be ...
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0answers
65 views

Key size of a repeating key XOR-encrypted message using Hamming distance

To find possible key sizes for an encrypted message, I break the message into blocks with length s, ...
3
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1answer
315 views

Requirements for RSA key parameters

Recently I'm working with a chinese vendor for POS devices and their devices use 2048bit RSA keys for signing binaries. I had to generate a public/private pair (so I can sign my own binaries) and I ...
0
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0answers
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Are all sizes of RSA keys possible? [duplicate]

I mistakenly thought that RSA keys could only be powers of two(1024, 2048, 4096 etc.) but a few days ago read about a 1536-bit and 1160-bit RSA key. I am wondering is it possible to have an RSA key of ...
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1answer
5k views

What is the recommended minimum key length for ECDSA signature

I want to identify the proportion of certificates that use unrecommend ECDSA key length for TLS certificates based on some data I collected. By looking at a standard like NIST for example, I find ...
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1answer
52 views

Are short ElGamal keysizes acceptable (1024-bit or lower) in cases where security is only necessary in a short timeframe

I am working on an efficient mental poker framework. I have implemented a functional and secure commutative encryption scheme based on ElGamal as described in: http://groups.csail.mit.edu/cis/theses/...
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2answers
655 views

Is it required to use a random IV for AES-CBC with random key per message? [duplicate]

I'm developing a program to encrypt and decrypt a file with AES-256/CBC in Java. And I want it to be safe enough. In my case, I generated random AES key for each file to encrypt and decrypt them. My ...
2
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2answers
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Do 2DES and 3DES2 have the same effective key length?

I am following the notes "Introduction to Modern Cryptography" by Bellare and Rogaway, and on the chapter about blockciphers there is the following claim (page 11 of https://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~mihir/...
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2answers
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NIST HMAC Test vectors

I am searching test vectors of the HMAC-SHA256 primitive to verify the correctness of an implementation. Without hesitation I go on the NIST website to see what they offer. While reading the ...
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0answers
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Effect of longer key on DES security

I am reading a book on cryptography and the author states that one of the complaints of the research community was that DES key length was chosen to be too short. I am trying to depict how DES would ...
2
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1answer
119 views

Maximum security strength in bits of ISAAC cipher?

Wikipedia claims key length can be very big in this cipher, so I assume it can offer a million bits of security provided entropy of key is the same? Of course I can SHA-256 hash the key to allow any ...
3
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1answer
772 views

384-bit ChaCha20 / Salsa20

The standard Salsa20 core is a $\{0,1\}^{384} \to \{0,1\}^{512}$ random function with a 16 byte constant ($\sigma$ for a 32-byte key), an 8 byte nonce, an 8 byte counter, and a 32 byte key. The hash ...
19
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2answers
11k views

What size should the HMAC key be with SHA-256?

I'm trying to generate a secret key to be used for HMAC SHA-256 signature processing. I've seen many sample of keys with variable length from 32 characters to 96 characters. What is the ironclad rule ...

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