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Questions tagged [known-plaintext-attack]

The attacker knows at least one sample of both the plain text and the cipher text.

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Recognizing and decrypting custom cipher with known plaintext and ciphertext

I've been trying to reconstruct an encryption algorithm that produces a known ciphertext from a know plaintext. I have done some analysis: the algorithm operates on single bytes a plain text can be ...
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Known plain-text attack on Kerberos

This is a form of the Kerberos protocol I have two questions. Why does this protocol give the opportunity of a known plain-text attack because of no authentication of Joe? And how would an attacker ...
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Why are cyclic keys in Feistel Networks insecure?

So everyone seems to agree that recurring round keys in a Feistel network (eg. using the same key for every round) are a massive security leak. When researching this, the only thing I found is the ...
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XChacha20poly1305 vulnerability to known plaintext attacks

During a security audit, the guy said our cryptosystem is vulnerable to known-plaintext attacks. He said that's because «the implementation uses a crypto_stream_xor() approach» (from libsodium). That'...
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Is it possible to narrow down the possible keys used for AES CBC encryption, knowing a given plaintext and its ciphertext, where IV=0? [duplicate]

I'm brute forcing a ciphertext with a given dictionary to figure out which key was used. However, it's been hinted at that there is a way to narrow down the dictionary to a smaller subset of ...
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Known Plain-text Attack [closed]

How can I find the known plain text P2 based on the given information? Assuming that the encryption is made using a common initialization vector and the mode used for encryption is OFB. ...
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Encrypted ZIP and plain text attack [duplicate]

I have a Zip archive containing a single password-protected file file.txt. The encryption is "ZIP 2.0 Default Encryption" (ZipCrypto). I know what kind of text (...
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Why is the Domingo-Ferrer cryptosystem not used in practice?

The Domingo-Ferrer cryptosystem is a fully homomorphic cryptosystem. It works fast enough. I have only seen known-plaintext attacks. Is this a reason not to use it in practice? Or are there more ...
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Known-plaintext attack against E0 with 2745 bits per frame instead of 24

In the paper The Conditional Correlation Attack: A Practical Attack on Bluetooth Encryption, an attack against the E0 cipher is described which can break it efficiently in a known-plaintext attack: ...
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Cipher recommendation for known-plaintext attack

I need to encrypt a 4-digit number. The cipher-text can be up to 11 digits long and there are no limits for the key size. Considering that the attacker has access to both the cipher-text and the ...
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What are some best practices to handle user password in shell script and environment variables?

I'm new to this community. Currently im working on a project which involves handling user password in shell script. Following steps describe my password consumption flow: Get password from user ...
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How many required known plaintexts for an attack are considered insecure?

I stumbled over this problem when looking at symmetrical block ciphers with a relatively small block size like 32 bit. When I was looking at more common block ciphers with a 64 bit, I learned that ...
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Hill cipher: How to find an unknown key of unknown size

How would you tackle the problem of finding the key (you don't know the length) to a Hill cipher when knowing only one 12-letter word of plaintext and its corresponding ciphertext? CONVERSATION has ...
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Unique numbers with $P^aQ^bR^c \mod N$ for each combination of $a,b,c$ possible? Would it be safer than separate form (like $T^a \mod P$ for each)?

Main question: Is the computation of $a,b,c$ in $P^aQ^bR^c \mod N$ (much) harder than in $T_p^a \mod P$, $T_q^b \mod Q$, $T_r^c \mod R$ ? (assuming the first form exists) $P^aQ^bR^c \mod N$ With $P^...
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How much more secure is $c = mg_1^r + g_2(g_1(g_1^r-1)/(g_1-1)) \mod p$ compared to just $c = mg_1^r \mod p$ (dis. log), all known but $r$?

To encode a message $m$ to a cipher $c$ you can use the only hard solvable problem of computing the discrete logarithm with a generator $g$ in base over a prime $p$. $c = mg_1^r$ mod p If an ...
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IV Re-use and Chosen Plaintext against 56bit Blowfish (CBC)

I am looking at a very old protocol which uses Blowfish to encrypt packets with a constant 8-byte IV in CBC mode. Assuming I have: The ability to arbitrary encrypt known plaintexts The IV I know ...
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how to compute IV with AES CTR if key, plaintext and ciphertext are known?

Given $E_k$, which a block-cipher using the (known) key $k$, and a plaintext-ciphertext pair $(p,c)$ where $c$ is the encryption of $p$ using CTR mode, can the initialization vector be recovered using ...
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Is it necessary to study the KPA security for asymmetric encryption algorithms in addition to CPA security? [duplicate]

In a KPA attack model, an adversary $\mathcal{A}$ has access to pairs of messages $(m_i,c_i)$ which are encrypted using some asymmetric algorithm. However, assuming either El-Gamal or RSA algorithms, ...
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show that G' is not a secure PRG even if G is

Hello I'm trying to show that the function G'(s) = G(s) || G(G(s)) is not a secure PRG even if G is. My first question is that in this case, how do I know what G ...
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1answer
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AES-CBC ciphertext manipulation with known IV and plaintext! [duplicate]

I'm currently practicing on a purposely flawed login page, where I have to change the value of a cookie to enter. The cookie is an encrypted and encoded form of a simple JSON string with fields "admin"...
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Is my deniable encryption scheme reasonable?

I was experimenting with RubberhoseFS, but since it is very hard to compile on anything modern, I decided to implement my own version, stripped of many unnecessary features. Namely, my implementation ...
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Is it possible to find the key for AES ECB if I have a list of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext?

Assume I have a list of plaintext text and its corresponding ciphertext which was created using a specific key with AES in ECB mode. Can I recover that key? If, how big does the list of plaintext ...
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Known Plaintext Attack for Modified OFB Mode of Operation

Question: Assume a variant of the OFB mode by which we only feedback the 8 most significant bits of the cipher output. We use AES and fill the remaining 120 input bits to the cipher with 0's: Why is ...
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Known Plaintext Attack on Block Cipher in ECB and CBC Modes of Operations

These 2 similar questions are from Paar's Understanding Cryptography. I could not see the answer so if someone can help I will appreciate: Question1: We consider known plaintext attacks on block ...
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Ethereum RLPx protocol for inter-node communication - flaws in the encryption

Ethereum uses RLPx/devp2p for inter-node communication. The protocol is encrypted using Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (see ref) Under Known-Issues I found this paragraph: The RLPx ...
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It's safe to store a known value (for checking) next to the actually encrypted values

The high level details of the encryption I'm using is: AndroidKeyStore create/store RSA key AES key is created and wrapped with RSA/ECB/PKCS1Padding Encrypted AES is saved to disk. Data is encrypted ...
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Known-plaintext attack on 1-round Feistel networks

Consider a simple, 1-round Feistel network. Because the ciphertext is essentially $(L_1,R_1)$, if one knows the plaintext $(L_0,R_0)$, the only unknown left is $K$. However round functions in ...
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Is Paillier secure from known plaintext attack for single character message?

Assuming I have three messages m1,m2,m3 where m1=m2=m3=1 and I compute c1,c2 and c3. Does that mean that c1=c2=c3 in cipher-text from ? If not, how many times can I encrypt a message m=1 and still ...
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Would it possible to decode an intelligible but alien message? [duplicate]

I've been reading some sci-fi and there is a frequent mention of decoding alien signals. From what i read historically in ww2 for decoding enemy message the allies would transmit fake information ...
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Clarification on Hill Cipher crib dragging technique

--- this has been edited as I realised the question was silly. replaced with helpful information --- I want to confirm the following: Given ciphertext "AGHTDIX... [cont.]" (C) and crib (a word ...
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Cracking truncated DES

Let's say we have a scheme in which 40 bits M are padded with 24 zeroes, encrypted using a secret DES key K, and the result truncated to the first 24 bits, C. If I wanted to determine a key that ...
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What's the difference between a known-plaintext attack and a ciphertext-only attack in terms of performance?

I know that in the KPA the attacker has access to both the plaintext and the ciphertext, but in the end it all comes down to performing an exhaustive key search. I'm not sure if having the ...
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8th SharifCTF — What is the advisable way to recover the key of single round DES here?

I am participating in the 8th SharifCTF competition and have a related question: I have 1000 plaintext and its ciphertext, which has been encrypted with DES algorithm (only 1 round). Now, how can ...
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If an attacker has a chosen-plaintext and encrypted data, can they determine the encryption type?

This question differs from How to determine what type of encoding/encryption has been used?, which asked about a ciphertext-only attack. This question is asking about a chosen-plaintext attack. Let's ...
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Reversability of Xor'd Values In Hash?

This may be a dumb question so please forgive me if so, but is a hash function considered one-way even if you have half of an xor'd value? For example say I have the values R and C, both are randomly ...
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Question on recovering a key in the algorithm

Let $E$ be a block cipher that has block size and key size both equal to 64 bits. Let $E'$ be a block cipher that has 64-bit block size and is defined as follows: For a 128 bits key $K \mathbin\Vert ...
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Multiple XML files and known-plaintext attack

I have created an app which collects data in sets which may contain up to 20000 XML files of an average size of about 5 KB, and all with the same header and XML structure, so that only the data they ...
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Known Plaintext Attack A5/2

I am trying to understand the non-optimized known plaintext attack on A5/2 from Barkan, Bikan and Keller. I don't understand the construction of the equation system: $$S_{R4_1} * S_1 = k$$ Where $S$ ...
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Known plaintext attack without knowing the location of the plaintext

I'm trying to understand known plaintext attacks and since I best learn by doing I broke out Python and did the following: I have a plaintext string s and a key <...
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Why does DESX break if one removed post whitening?

DESX uses whitening to strengthen against brute force attacks. What is an attack one could use to recover DESX's pre-whitening key with only two known ciphertext/plaintext pairs, given that the ...
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Known plaintext attack against Feistel ciphers

Assuming we have a Feistel cipher, with let's say 2 rounds i.e: Plaintext $P=(L_{0},R_{0})$ $L_{1}=R_{0}$ $R_{1}=L_{0}\oplus f_{{K}_{1}}(R_{0})$ $L_{2}=R_{1}$ $R_{2}=L_{1}\oplus f_{{K}_{2}}(R_{1})...
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While encrypting what can happen between words

From some time I am working with "pen and paper" encrypted text. Keys are not known, algorithm is not known. I managed to find simple algorithm and key that seems to be nearly perfect. Nearly perfect ...
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Whats the most secure way to encrypt a string without the use of a computer? [duplicate]

I want to decrease attack surface by preventing the plaintext string or encryption key from ever being typed or otherwise entered into a computer. Ideally the decryption key would be something that ...
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1answer
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AES-ECB known ciphertext/plaintext attack

i'm new to crypto and am working on a little exercise to understand the weakness of ECB mode encryption. Here is the scenario. I have the plain text ...
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Decrypting AES with known properties of plaintext

Austria passed a law recently which requires all invoices for cash-transactions to carry a QR-Code, that is signed by a government-registered certificate-authority. Each code contains public ...
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Is my XTEA encryption key safe if I publish my firmware both as plain text and encrypted?

I'm using this bootloader that implements XTEA encryption for uploading an encrypted firmware to small MCU: https://github.com/nyholku/diolan-plus2 the actual XTEA code is here: https://github.com/...
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Brute force, get AES keys by multiple plain-texts with their cipher-texts

I know that the encryption is AES, and I have multiple plain-texts with their cipher-texts, I don't know the encryption mode (ECB, CFB, etc ...) actually, but I know that the keys and the IV Key (if ...
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Preventing predictable modifications to AES encrypted data

I'm fairly new to cryptography and am trying to find out best practice for this situation. Let's say I have some code which is going to be used to pass around an encrypted e-mail address. I encrypt it ...
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Recover key given partial key, IV and cipher text using CBC mode

Given a known IV and a small part of the key (not enough to use brute force) is there are any way to break CBC encryption with only one cipher text?
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AES-CBC-128 Known plain, IV, Cipher attack

Let's say we have a single char 'A' and we encrypted it as much times as we want with a fixed Key and a random IV So now we have list of the IVs used, the result ciphers and ofc the known text "A" ...