Questions tagged [lightweight]

Small and/or fast ciphers and other cryptographic primitives designed for use in constrained environments, such as embedded MCUs and smart cards.

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How one can combine shift row and mix column to form a single matrix?

I am trying to combine the effect the shift row and mix column into a single matrix. The cipher that I am working with is skinny64 (untweaked version). I know that combining the effect of these two ...
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2 votes
3 answers
564 views

NIST vs ISO Encryption standardisation process

skinny cipher has been lately considered as ISO/IEC standard while is still competing as building block of Romulus AEAD in NIST LWC finalists. what is the difference between the two ISO and NIST ...
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NIST LWC finalists (AEAD) vs ChaCha20-Poly1305

NIST LWC finalists announced. My question is that how finalists are faster or slower than current golden lightweight AEAD standard -- ChaCha20-Poly1305. Some benchmark among chacha20-poly1305 vs LWC ...
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Lightweight encrypting for BLE advertising packets

I'm new to encryption and this is my first time working with it. I'm currently working on a home project which consists of the equipment in my garage to be attached with a BLE device which sends ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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Why does TinyJAMBU-128 claim only 112-bit security?

I am trying to understand the security level of TinyJAMBU-128. As shown in Table 4.1 page 12 of this document, TinyJAMBU-128 claims 112-bit security. However, it has a 128-bit key. How have we lost 16 ...
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Does the security proof of HMAC somehow change if it's instantiated with sponge-based hash functions with small rate and large capacity?

HMAC was introduced in [1], as a MAC that has its security proof based on the properties on the underlaying hash function. The hash functions considered in that paper were ones based on the Merkle-...
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How to check that an $km \times km$ block-binary matrix is an MDS matrix in $k$-bit words over $\operatorname{GF}(2)$

I have been reading about MDS matrices. It is defined as (paraphrased from Section 2.1) An $n \times n$ matrix $M$ is MDS if and only if $bn(M) = n + 1$ where $bn$ (branch number) is defined as: $bn(...
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Does there exist a test vector for the Xoodoo permutation?

What I need is a set of pairs, where the first element of the pair is a 384-bit input (including the sequence of 384 zero bits) and the second element is a corresponding 384-bit output of the Xoodoo ...
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How to justify the lightweight symmetric PRESENT encryption algorithm is more secure?

My domain is VLSI design, currently, I'm working on PRESENT Lightweight cryptographic algorithm. I want to know how to improve the security of the algorithm rather than increasing bit size? Is there ...
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What's the least computationally expensive way to verify a message is from who they say they are?

We're building an ingame GPS system where only 5 lines of code are executed a second. We're starting to face problems with people spoofing the satellites we use to triangulate. Is it feasible to ...
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2 votes
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Unknown bit in the output of encryption of data using SIMECK32 cipher?

How is the unknown bits (annotated by red arrow in figure below) come in the OUTPUT after round 1 and round 2 ? Following is the pictorial representation of SIMECK round function operation. Ref: ...
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Understanding Fourier Coefficient

In Bogdanov's and others, PRESENT: An Ultra-Lightweight Block Cipher, they mention that the S-box in PRESENT fulfill four primary conditions. They denote the Fourier coefficient as $$S_b^W (a) = \sum_{...
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Where can I find standardized implementations of lightweight cryptographic ciphers?

I am working on a project that requires encrypting messages with different ciphers. I am looking for the following ciphers: PRESENT, CLEFIA, LEA, Hill cipher, Affine cipher, Elliptic Curve ...
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Lightweight provably secure design [closed]

Is it possible to device lightweight (i.e. without asymmetric crypto and PKI; and without third party Trent) provably secure (in the exact security sense) scheme? Were there any attempts? Is it ...
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Definition of diffusion matrix

I've been studying this article and since I'm not studying cryptography in English and it is not my native language, I don't understand some of the terminology. More precisely: what are diffusion ...
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Does anyone know an easily creatable asymmetric cryptosystem for usage in VDF?

I've read multiple papers about VDFs (1, 2, etc.). I look for a lighter alternative to El-Gamal regarding cryptosystem creation. It can be anything exotic too, but it would be nice to have at least ...
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11 votes
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CAESAR finalists: Lightweight case (Ascon vs ACORN)

The Ascon cipher has been selected as the first choice in lightweight case and ACORN as the second. However according to Face-off between the CAESAR Lightweight Finalists: ACORN vs. Ascon paper, the ...
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Why commutativity gives an invariant subspace?

In A Generic Approach to Invariant Subspace Attacks the authors defined an invariant subspace as: $$F(u + A) = v + A$$ Where $F:\mathbb{F}_2^n \to \mathbb{F}_2^n$,$u, v \in \mathbb{F}_2^n$, and $A$ ...
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Most energy-efficient authentication protocol?

I am looking for a cryptographic protocol that is as energy-efficient as possible. I am talking about battery drain. Alice wants to do a mutual authentication with Bob. Maybe symmetric is good, maybe ...
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Are there recommended modes of operation for lightweight ciphers?

There are many recommended modes of operation for block ciphers as described by NIST here, e.g. for DES and AES. However, I am struggling to find any for lightweight ciphers. I am particularly ...
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In what cases might PRESENT be implemented as encryption-only?

In the paper, under section 4.1 Goals and environment of use we read: In applications that demand the most efficient use of space, the block cipher will often only be implemented as encryption-only. ...
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1 answer
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Could we use a more efficient hash for signature generation?

Is it possible to use a more efficient hash - such as one based on GHASH - instead of a cryptographic hash for signature generation? In other words, could a combination of a fast hash and the private ...
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What lightweight cryptographic hash function for short input could I use for HMAC? [closed]

I am looking for a cryptographic hash function that I can configure for HMAC. The input that I will hash is around 50 bytes. The function must be fast, and computationally lightweight.
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Is CLEFIA block cipher really lightweight? [closed]

CLEFIA is ISO/IEC 29192-2 standard in lightweight cryptography. According to this, the total GE area (I took the minimum) using .13 um is 2,488 (encryption mode) compared to piccolo-128 with GE area ...
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Practical application of lightweight block cipher

Are any lightweight block cipher ciphers adopted in real-time? If yes, what cipher and which application?
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1 answer
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Lightweight primality certificates for untrusted DH parameters

Are there any light-weight techniques to generate primality certificates for custom Diffie–Hellman parameters that could be sent to the client to allow it to verify primality without needing to run ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is there a lower cost cryptography than elliptic-curves based cryptography?

ECC requires less CPU power, less memory and shorter keys than RSA or any other asymmetric cryptography I came across in the literature (correct me if I am wrong). Is there a lower cost asymmetric ...
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9 votes
3 answers
3k views

Lightweight cipher using only 8-bit operations

What is the most efficient (in cycles per byte) cryptographically secure symmetric cipher to implement using only 8-bit operations? Algorithms like TEA are great for embedded devices, but it is ...
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Is there any dedicated research group which is working in energy efficient cryptographic functions? [closed]

Is there any dedicated research group which is working in energy efficient cryptographic functions for mobile devices. In mobile devices other than tuning a frequency/voltage, network speed any other ...
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How does the PRESENT cipher's permutation affect all rounds when it repeats after every three rounds?

I heard that the permutation in PRESENT affects all bits after only a few rounds. However, when I looked at it the bits return to their original position after only three rounds. For example, in round-...
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What is the difference between lightweight tweakable block cipher and tweakable block cipher?

What is the difference between lightweight tweakable block cipher and tweakable block cipher? For example, lightweight tweakable block cipher is SKINNY family, and tweakable block cipher is Threefish ...
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7 votes
3 answers
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Standard lightweight one-way hash functions for IoT devices

What are the standard lightweight one-way hash functions used in current Internet of Things devices? I could find some proposal of hash functions in conference papers but I want to know the ones ...
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9 votes
2 answers
478 views

What is the official, generally accepted definition of "lightweight crypto"?

I frequently stumble upon the term "lightweight crypto". It tends to be used is a for special algorithms that use less resources, for constrained systems. Yet, it's somewhat unclear to me ...
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3 votes
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mCrypton - does anyone know where I can find test vectors or a reference implementation?

I am currently writing an implementation of the mCrypton lightweight block cipher (as presented in this paper). Unfortunately, the authors do not provide any test vectors. I tried to contact the ...
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Test vectors for Piccolo algorithm?

I'm looking for Test Vectors to test my implementation of PICCOLO. I would like to test a different input from the usual where the key and the plaintext are either 000..000 or FFF...FFF. I wrote ...
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2 votes
1 answer
108 views

Reduced variants of stream ciphers

What are "reduced variants" of stream ciphers and how do they relate to lightweight cryptography? How do their internal states compare to those of non-reduced variants? Security aspects?
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6 votes
1 answer
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What are the advantages of MICKEY over Trivium and Grain?

These three stream ciphers were chosen for the final hardware profile of the eSTREAM portfolio. As far as I understand it, their merits are: Trivium: elegant design, very high throughput per area, ...
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Why is symmetric lightweight crypto only about block ciphers and not about stream ciphers?

Why is symmetric lightweight cryptography only about block ciphers and not about stream ciphers? AFAIK stream cipher implementations cost at least three times less than block cipher ones?
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6 votes
1 answer
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Generating an IV for AES-CBC

I am faced with the task of generating a secure 256-bit IV for AES-CBC. I possess the following resources: A 32-bit microprocessor A 32-bit PRNG (can read/reseed) A 64-bit clock counter (can read) ...
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4 votes
2 answers
4k views

Lightweight Asymmetric encryption algorithm

I'm an embedded systems researcher, and new in the crypto field. Actually, I need to know if there are any lightweight asymmetric encryption algorithm especially considering the time needed for key ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Lightweight Cryptography and Gate Equivalents [closed]

If I design a lightweight cryptographic algorithm, how do I calculate gate equivalents (GE)?
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Differential Cryptanalysis [closed]

How do I find the differential characteristics using techniques Shrinking ? How do I extract the key on Differential Cryptanalysis using the technique Shrinking in Blockcipher Algorithm? Shrinking ...
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26 votes
3 answers
6k views

How is bitslicing faster?

I have read a paper on Bit Slicing and Lightweight crypto but cannot understand how bitslicing makes encryption scheme faster. Please can someone explain with an example exactly how bit slicing makes ...
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3 votes
1 answer
545 views

(Lightweight) Multicast one-way Authentication

Problem: I'm thinking about a lightweight solution to provide source authentication (only one source) to multiple receivers (multicast message). Context: Taking the problem to ground, we can think of ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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What is the lightweight key exchange protocol of choice?

Assume I have to implement a secure channel protocol by myself. Assume further that for some obscure reasons (library restrictions?) I can't use any of the pre-made libraries for SSH, TLS and such. ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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CLEFIA vs AES 128-bit

I am running a comparison between CLEFIA(Lightweight cipher from Sony Corporation which is a standard now http://www.sony.net/Products/cryptography/clefia/standard/index.html) and AES 128-bit. The ...
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What is the most light-weight symmetric cipher thats still usefull?

I need a very light encryption scheme which costs almost no performance during encryption (while decryption may be slow). I found 5 algorithms: RC4, DES, LED, PRESENT, and Piccolo. But how do I ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Difference between lightweight, online and low memory Authenticated Encryption schemes

What is the basic difference between the following types of Authenticated Encryption (AE) schemes? Lightweight Authenticated encryption Online Authenticated Encryption Authenticated Encryption for ...
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1 answer
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Smart Card Basics

I want to implement some of the basic encryption algorithms on smart card, could any body guide me how to program a smart card, which tools (hardware and software) I should have, and if these tools ...
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12 votes
2 answers
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Are there any signature schemes for underpowered devices (8-bit microcontroller)?

I am currently researching into a small scale home automation system, aiming for cost. The system architecture is basically one master and several slaves which are connected in parallel. Recently i'...
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