# Questions tagged [lwe]

Learning with Errors is a form of lattice problem used in the design of cryptographic primitives. LWE is based on the Closest Vector Problem (CVP).

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### Does there exist trapdoor permutation from lattices?

It seems that the lattice functions are either surjective (SIS) or injective (LWE), due to the error that is basically intended to destroy the structure and provide security. I was wondering whether ...
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### ring-LWE: Minkowski Embedding , the Co-Different Ideal, etc

While (trying) to go over the reductions from approx. SVP on ideal lattices to search ring-LWE,  and , for $K = \mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$ where $\zeta$ is an abstract root of a cyclotomic polynomial, ...
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### How can I geometrically understand LWE ciphertext and decryption step?

In the bottom of the wikipedia article of LWE (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_with_errors), we can see construction of Public-key cryptosystem based on the LWE. But, I cannot understand whole ...
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### Choosing the Bernoulli distribution for LPN encryption scheme

The symmetric-key encryption scheme from  is based on the LPN (learning parity with noise) problem. The definition of the problem is, informally, that the adversary cannot recover $\mathbf{s}$ from ...
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### Does secure LWE implementation leak bit information?

We know RSA leaks one bit about the factors and improper yet secure implementations of Discrete Logarithm leak one bit about the discrete logarithm. Does LWE leak any information?
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### Rounding function used in Saber Key Exchange

In Saber: Module-LWR based key exchange, the authors use a rounding function called $\textit{bits}$, defined (in page 3) as follows: $bits(x, i, j)$, with $j \leq i$, gives $j$ consecutive bits of a ...
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### Security of LWE when a small leakage is allowed on the noise

Short version: Are there some results that are known on the security of the Learning With Error problem when there are some leakages, notably on the noise? (In my case these leakages come from a bit ...
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### Why round off vector sampling from continuous Gaussian distribution not directly sample from discrete Gaussian distribution

For any vector $\mathbf{c}$, real $s > 0$, and lattice $\Lambda$, define the probability distribution $D_{\Lambda, s,\mathbf{c}}$ over $\Lambda$ by D_{\Lambda, s,\mathbf{c}}(\mathbf{x})=\frac{...
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### Distinguishing advantage in terms of $\Omega(\omega)$

I was going through this paper ("Fully Homomophic Encryption over the Integers Revisited") and the statement written in the first paragraph on page 5 stating $\DeclareMathOperator{\agcd}{AGCD}$ We ...
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### show how LWE errors can have a greater impact on result

Hi weve been given the following question in one of our classes but have not been taught anything about it and is worded strangely. It is to show how the LWE problem works by showing how small errors ...
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### What are the prerequisites for understanding Lattice based Cryptography, LWE or RLWE based on SVP?

I'm new to Quantum Resistant Cryptography, so, I thought of diving into Lattice based crypto, LWE and ring LWE. I realise that the hard problem involving them is the "shortest vector problem"...
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### Difference between polynomial embedding and canonical embedding

Can anyone tell me the difference between working in the polynomial embedding for $R$-LWE, and working in the canonical embedding?
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### Proof for, Vectors sampled from $D_{(L,r)}$ have Euclidean norm at most $r\sqrt{n}$ with a high probability

For any $n$-dimensional lattice $L$ and $r > 0$, a point sampled from $D_{L,r}$ has Euclidean norm at most $r\sqrt{n}$ except with probability at most $2^{-2n}$ (where $r$ refers to the standard ...
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### Multibit LWE Encryption

What's the simplest way to encrypt multiple bits with LWE public key cryptosystem? Some paper say use a different secret key for each bit of the message. Does that mean the length of the message ...
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### Solving for secret s in LWE problem

in LWE instance $b=A^t s +e$, can we find an orthogonal basis of coefficient matrix A in polynomial time, let it be B.Multiply B to get $Bb=Be$ as term with s will vanish. Then solve for $e$. After ...
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### How to solve a simple case of a RLWE problem

I've been reading up on the Ring Learning with Errors problem and the proposed attacks, in relation to homomorphic encryption. Some of the literature has been quite difficult to understand - what I ...
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### How does the polynomial module impact the security of ring/lattices-based SIS problem?

Consider the following SIS problem: for a function $f_A(s)$=$As$, where $A$ is a fixed, randomly-chosen matrix in $(R_q)^{r \times n}$=$\left(\mathbb{Z}_q[X]/(X^N+1)\right)^{r \times n}$ and $q$ a ...
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### Batching in LWE based Crypto-System

Is batching possible for a LWE based crypto-system like we do for a RLWE based one?
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### How to provide security against malicious adversary in Ring LWE homomorphic encryption scheme?

I was reading Ring LWE homomorphic encryption scheme referred in http://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~zvikab/localpapers/IdealHom.pdf But this encryption scheme provides security mostly in the semi-...
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### Attacks on LWE when q is a power of 2

I am working on an LWE instance where q is a power of 2 and I'm wondering if there is any literature about attacks in this context, especially if there are any attacks which work significantly better. ...
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### Binomial distribution sampling - concrete example

Can anyone give me an explicit example of how one can samples from the binomial distribution defined in NewHope's paper? What is the difference of sampling from rounded Gaussian in practice?
From Regev's paper in 2005, we know that for applying worst-case to average-case reduction to an lwe cryptosystem, one should use error distributions with standard deviation $s$ bigger than $2\sqrt{n}$...