# Questions tagged [notation]

Questions on the meaning, history, and usage of symbols and notation in cryptography. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any notation you are asking about.

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### Confusing notation in signature scheme

In the paper Efficient and Secure Pairing-Free Certificateless Aggregate Signature Scheme for Healthcare Wireless Medical Sensor Networks, on the signature generation part (Page 5), there is an ...
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### How does this generate a permutation?

In the process of trying to answer this question, I ended up getting stuck. I found a paper which seems to solve their issue: its authors define a process which yields a pseudorandom permutation ...
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### What does a vertical bar mean in this context?

I'm doing a few exercises regarding Schnorr's identification scheme. I have the exercise starting off like this, with the values defined: Let $p = 311$ and $r = 31\ |\ (p - 1)$. Let $g = 169$, which ...
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### What does it mean for “1^n”(i.e., the security parameter written in unary)? [duplicate]

As it is mentioned above, I am confused about “Gen takes as input $1^n$ and outputs a key“. Does it mean that the input of Gen is 1111....111 with length of n?
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### What does $\text{PK}=\text{pk}\oplus\text{H}(\text{opk})$ represent in this paper?

In Lu, Au and Zhang's 2019 paper (Linkable) Ring Signature from Hash-Then-One-Way Signature, they …extend [M. Abe, M. Ohkubo, and K. Suzuki's 2019 1-out-of-n signatures from a variety of keys] ...
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### What does this Big-O notation mean based on appendix?

I am reading the following book: Introduction to Modern Cryptography Second Edition by Jonathan Katz and Yehuda Lindell. I am going through page 533 where they list what some of the notation means, ...
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### Why do crypto tools display key components in such an unusual format?

openssl x509 (v1.0.1f) displays public key moduli as arrays of hex-encoded bytes, 15 columns wide, starting with a leading 00:: ...
I have seen all of the following notations used to denote the encryption of a message $m$ with the key $k$ to produce the ciphertext $c$: $c = E(k,m)$ $c \leftarrow E(k,m)$ $c := E(k,m)$ Is there ...