# Questions tagged [one-time-pad]

A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the plain text.

271 questions
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### Is it easier to crack the Vernam Cipher with more than two ciphertexts

I have just started looking into the cracking of the Vernam cipher with two ciphertexts encrypted with the same key by XORing them and then crib dragging and I was wondering if it is made easier if ...
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### When Shamir secret sharing used in one time pad scheme

In the following, all operations are defined over a finite field of prime order. Please note that what I'm explaining below is a part of a bigger protocol, however, to keep things simple I just ...
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### one time pad cryptography [duplicate]

For One-time pad, it is required to never reuse the same key to encrypt two different messages. Suppose that Alice ignored this recommendation and decided to reuse the same key to encrypt two messages ...
4answers
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### double encryption - One Time Pad

Can the security of the encryption system be improved by using double encryption with two randomly chosen keys? By double encryption I mean using two keys K1 and K2, each 20-bit long, to obtain ...
1answer
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### Is the One Time Pad secure in additive Rings?

Let's assume all operations are done on $\mathbb{Z}_p$ where $p$ is a large non-prime number. To mask a value $a$, we do the following: Pick a uniformly random value: $r$, from the ring. Do as ...
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### When does multiple OTP encryption become insecure if new keys are permuted? ​

I understand that OTP encryption fulfils perfect secrecy, meaning you can't decrypt the encrypted text to it's original plaintext (and know that this plaintext is indeed the original plaintext) unless ...
1answer
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### One-Time Pad Vulnerabilities [duplicate]

Why is it that a one time pad is vulnerable is the key is shorter than the message? I know that if a key is reused across multiple plaintexts, you can XOR two existing ciphertexts to get the pad, but ...
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### Simple One time Pad Probability

We have a one time pad where: We have 8 bits. probability that a bit=0 is p. The key is common for all 8 bits. It can have a value of 0 or 1 with equal probability. After applying the XOR operation ...
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### Is one time pad cipher reuse and random key secure?

The sender and receiver share two different secret keys: s1 and s2 both y bit values. 'x' is a randomly generated y bit value. The reader sends to the tag a challenge y = x ⊕ s1, and the receiver ...
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### Is OTP with homomorphic encryption trivial?

If my key size is as large as the data I'm encoding, is it trivial to devise a theoretically secure homomorphic encryption scheme for integers (or else any finite/infinite group with order) that ...
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### What are some real world examples where one time pad encryption is used or can be used?

I understood that One-Time Pad (OTP) encryption ensures perfect secrecy. However, I couldn't find any real-world examples where the OTP is used. Also, which are some real-world examples where it won'...
2answers
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### What is the difference between a Vigenère cipher and a one time pad cipher?

I'm doing a decryption competition at a nearby college. We are allowed one cheat sheet so I'm trying to make one. I realized that the Vigenère cipher was very similar to the one time pad and wanted ...
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### One Time Pads and “Bit Flip” Attacks

One Time Pads and Vulnerability to "Bit-Flip" Attacks: I've seen it in this group, and apparently there are a (small) number of voices on the 'net opining that those relying on OTP are essentially "...
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### One-time pad encryption - how does the receiving side decrypt the message?

If a message is sent using one-time pad scheme, which generates random bits in order to, for example, XOR them with the message's bits - how does the receiving side generate the exact series of bits ? ...
1answer
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### Is a hash more or just equally representative of the first [hashlength] bytes of the hashed one-time pad?

[Clarification edit further down.] To distinguish already existing one-time pad files by their content instead of just their name ... ... is hashing meaningful? Or would the first X bytes (Length ...
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### Is one-time pad encryption vulnerable when near identical data is sent many times with different OTP?

Let's assume a text file that grows at its very end but is otherwise not edited. We now have 100 transmissions of this, but OTP-encrypted (different OTP each time, of course). The first 50% of the ...
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### Generate one-time-pad with pre-shared key and public randomness

I know very little about cryptography, so I apologize if the question does not make sense. Let's say we design a function $F(P, X) \rightarrow K$ that takes in a pre-shared private key $P$ and a ...
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### Vernam/OTP repeated pad vulnerability [duplicate]

One thing I know about the Vernam cipher is that the key must not be repeated over the plain-text, for example: ...
1answer
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### How to compare one time pad security and efficiency with AES?

It seems that the minimal size of Pseudorandom permutation (PRP) output is $128$ bits. In general, I'd like to see if there's any minimal size of the output of pseudorandom function (PRF) as well? for ...
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### One Time Pad - does it work for long plain texts?

Reading Dirk Rijmenants's work on One Time Pad and he frequently mentions that it is suited to short plaintexts. I presume this is just because of the practicality of encrypting and decrypting one ...
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### One-Time-Pad with multiple keys?

Would it be more secure if we used multiple keys in a One-Time-Pad encryption?
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### Multiple Encryption - One-Time Pad

It is known that One-Time Pad(OTP)s are theoretically unbreakable but impractical for use because of the size of the key length. But what if multiple encryption is used? Not to encrypt the first ...
3answers
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### Why wouldn't everyone encrypt with a One Time Pad? [duplicate]

A One Time Pad (OTP) sounds perfectly secure if we are to believe Wikipedia. But on the surface it also sounds ridiculously impractical - how does one securely distribute the OTP? Idea: why not have ...
2answers
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### How to be sure to retrieve the good key when brute-forcing a cipher?

Imagine the case of the one-time pad. It is proved to be secure because the key could be everything. We have no guarantee that this key or that key was the one used while encrypting our data. ...
1answer
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### Proving one time pad is perfectly secret

I'm reading about one-time pad in "Introduction to Modern Cryptography" by Katz and Lindell. I can understand the definition of perfect secrecy. However, how is OTP proven to be perfectly secure ? I'm ...
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### Is There any Risk to Using Meaningful Text as One Time Pad Key?

Let's say two people have the same edition of the same magazine. The knowledge that the magazine will be used as a one time pad is secret. Is there any risk to using this as opposed to randomly ...
1answer
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### Is the one-time pad still perfectly secret if all-zero keys are excluded?

I'm trying to solve this question related to one-time pads and perfect secrecy: My solution is: I assumed that the current message space is $M = \left\{ 0,1 \right\}^l$ and the new keyspace after ...
1answer
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### Question on probability distribution

I computed $\Pr[\mathsf{CT} = 1] = \Pr[\mathsf{CT} = 2] = \Pr[\mathsf{CT} = 4] = 2/9$ and $\Pr[\mathsf{CT} = 3] = 1/3$. When I calculate the first entry in the table, I get 1/2 not 1/9. Is my ...
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### Strictly, is length(key) >= length(message) wrong for one time pads?

It's a common adage that for a perfectly secret one time pad, length(key) >= length(message) must hold. But that's wrong isn't it? At least very sloppy maths. Isn't the strict mathematical ...