A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the plain text.

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### How does one attack a two-time pad (i.e. one time pad with key reuse)?

My question might appear the same as the question Taking advantage of one-time pad key reuse?, but actually I did read all the answers and none of them helped me with the details I need. I am new to ...
77k views

Suppose Alice wants to send encryptions (under a one-time pad) of $m_1$ and $m_2$ to Bob over a public channel. Alice and Bob have a shared key $k$; however, both messages are the same length as the ...
27k views

### How to attack a “many-time pad” based on what happens when an ASCII space is XORed with a letter?

I've already sent my correct solution to a homework exercise from Dan Boneh's Introduction to Cryptography class on Coursera: "Let us see what goes wrong when a stream cipher key is used more than ...
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### Mathematical formula for switching the key for OTP?

Instead of generating the random key for the one time pad cipher over and over again, is there a mathematical formula that allows you to switch the key to a new key? The new key must be as random and ...
3k views

### Can I use a one time pad key twice with random plaintext?

I understand the basics of OTP: $|\text{key space}| = |\text{plaintext space}|$ implies perfect security, key reuse destroys this. Cryptanalysis on the $N$-Time Pad for $N > 1$ involves finding ...
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### Simply put, what does “perfect secrecy” mean?

I would like to ask for a clear (but maybe not so deep) explanation of what the term "perfect secrecy" means. As far as I have researched and understood, it has to do with probabilities of assuming ...
6k views

### How is the One Time Pad (OTP) perfectly secure?

The Wikipedia entry on One Time Pads (OTPs) states that if this cipher is used properly; ie, the keys are truly random and each part of the key is independent of every other part, it's uncrackable, ...
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### One time pad: why is it useless in practice?

The symmetric cryptosystem one-time pad (OTP) seems to be very beautiful since it is perfectly secret according to Shannon. Many books, however, point out the main drawback: one must create a secret ...
1k views

### Hash functions to generate a one-time pad

Maybe this is a newbie question: Stream cypher, will XOR message bits with one-time pad bits. Suppose I have a pseudorandom number generator, like a Mersenne Twister or something similar. I could use ...
2k views

### Using hash for one time pad key

Recently I've been delving into security algorithms, I already knew some of the (easy) math behind AES and RSA and how to and not to implement it. But well, i got a bit bored so i thought I'd just do ...
9k views

### Is modern encryption needlessly complicated?

RSA, DES, AES, etc., all use (relatively) complicated mathematics to encrypt some message with some key. For each of these methods, there have been several documented vulnerabilities found over the ...
611 views

### Is there a companion algorithm for OTP to ensure integrity and/or authentication?

One-Time Padding is (theoretically) perfect encryption algorithm. Let's assume that these problems are solved: Fast generation of independent and identically distributed random variables Perfect key ...
6k views

### Proving the semantic security of the One Time pad

Currently hearing a lecture on cryptography, and the professor gave us the definition of semantic security, which is roughly the following (formally not quite complete, but you get the idea): Given ...
1k views

### For a one-time pad, which MAC method is information-theoretically secure?

In the the main post about MAC methods it mentions a few methods: Authenticate And Encrypt: The sender computes a MAC of the plaintext, encrypts the plaintext, and then appends the MAC to the ...
1k views

### Is OTP useful in modern electronic communication?

I have seen from time to time questions about various OTP schemes and "OTP" (i.e. stream cipher) schemes. The most common OTP troubles appear to be: How to extend size of previously generated key or ...
820 views

### Why in one time pad must the key distribution to be truly random

One time pad required a truly random key. Why canwt it be a psudo-random key? For example, if the key distribution is that for each bit the probability to get 1 is 0.6 and the probability to get 0 is ...
11k views

### What is the difference between a stream cipher and a one-time-pad?

A (synchronous) stream cipher is an algorithm which maps some fixed-length key to an arbitrary-length key-stream (i.e. a sequence of bits): $C : \{0,1\}^k \to \{0,1\}^{\infty}$. This key-stream is ...
2k views

If I want to generate a few one-time pads, is it OK to just read required number of bytes from /dev/urandom without weakening information-theoretical security?
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### A “one time pad” can be thought of a Vigenere cipher with

A "One Time Pad" can be thought of a Vigenere cipher with... An infinitely long key A secure symmetric key Multiple ciphertext alphabets A columnar transposition I had this question come up ...
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### Is the One Time Pad (OTP) considered a cryptographic hash function?

As the title states, would the One Time Pad (OTP) be considered a cryptographic hash function?
156 views

### Little problem with Vernam Cipher

We have got a task with the following content: Given is a language with 3 letters: A, B, C. The binary expression is: A = 000, B = 1111 and C = 0011 Two ...
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### Is one time pad cipher reuse and random key secure?

The sender and receiver share two different secret keys: s1 and s2 both y bit values. 'x' is a randomly generated y bit value. The reader sends to the tag a challenge y = x ⊕ s1, and the receiver ...
1k views

### Implementing a one-time pad without binary?

I found a program which takes a purely alphabetical message, converts the letters to their ASCII values and combines them with the ASCII values of an alphabetical key (wrapping around when it gets to ...
268 views

### Present an attack for the combination of OTP and textbook RSA

Let $N=p \times q$ where $p$ and $q$ are two primes. Compute $\Phi (N) = (p-1)(q-1)$. Choose $e$ s.t. $1 < e < \Phi(N)$ and $gcd(e,\Phi(N))=1$. Compute $d = e^{-1}(mod \ \Phi(N))$. Set ...
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### What to do when crib dragging does not work in OTP (One-time pad) ciphers?

With a Cipher text of ...
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### Explain same encryption time for two files of different sizes

I am encrypting files in a two layered fashion as follows: Inner layer is 128 bit AES-CTR encryption Outer/Second layer is a simple one time padding with a particular key. While testing the running ...
12k views

### Why is OTP not vulnerable to brute-force attacks?

I saw this question on the book Understanding Cryptography. At first glance it seems as though an exhaustive key search is possible against an OTP system. Given is a short message, let’s say 5 ...
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### How were one-time pads and keys historically generated?

In the 20th century, it was common for various intelligence agencies and military organizations to use ciphering machines and one-time pads. However, no source I've seen ever mentions the process of ...
689 views

### Does humanly verifiable one time pad authentication exist?

Firstly some predicates:- Sufficient hardware generated one time pad key material. No pad reuse. Messages of 160 characters length (think Twitter). 28 characters only in use (A-Z, space and full stop ...
918 views

### Is Poly1305 an information-theoretically secure MAC?

I have heard some people say that the Poly1305 authenticator is a "nuclear" MAC i.e. it is information-theoretically secure. After reading the paper I see it is based on the Wegman-Carter MAC which is ...
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### One-time pad and zero key

I'm doing some exercises before my exam, and I am stuck with task number 4 in this file: http://www.cs.umd.edu/~jkatz/crypto/f10/hw1.pdf Could you help me with this task? When using the one-time ...
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### Is One Time Pad considered Chosen-Plaintext Attack Secure?

If we're considering Chosen-Plaintext Attack setting, then the adversary has access to the Encryption Oracle right, and we know that OTP is only considered secure if we use the key only once. How ...
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### Are picture files “random enough” to be usable as a one-time pad?

Say you have a picture with 1 megapixels taken at random and with $2^{24}$ possible colours per pixel (RGB-24). That image would be unique and the possible combinations $(2^{24})^{10^6}$ immense. ...
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### Perfect Deniability of a MAC

Overview One feature that is often underlooked of the One-Time Pad is its perfect deniability. i.e. If Alice sends a message to Bob that is seen by Eve then if Eve later goes to Alice with the ...
412 views

### What is the name of this kind of protocol

There is a communication protocol that I believe creates the equivalent of a one time pad, with the downside that the secret message must be transferred multiple times. The protocol is so simple that ...
381 views

### Having 4096 bit keys and short (< 256 byte) messages, can I simply use the key as OTP?

Assumptions: Alice and Bob use (cryptographically secure, hardware-rng generated) 4096 bit keys. Each message is encrypted using a new key; meaning: once a key is used, it's destroyed. Alice and Bob ...
1k views

### How to attack the Two Time Pad?

I encrypt 2 random keys with the same 'one' time pad. You can get both encrypted keys. You don't know anything besides the size. Is there a way to attack the two time pad in this scenario? And what ...
4k views

### decryption many time pad [duplicate]

I have eleven ciphertexts that were encrypted with the same key (which I don't know). I want to decrypt the last ciphertext. I read similar question like Many time pad attack but I can't solve my ...
480 views

### Breaking One Time Pad with CCA

I was taught that: although OTP is CPA secure, it is not the case with CCA. I'm trying to figure how to break OTP with CCA by showing how it fails the IND test. ...
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### Can I securely refill a one time pad over the same connection?

If you have a channel where you are communicating using a one time key, is it possible to receive additional key over that same connection without compromising security? Naively sending it through ...
165 views

### Is this transposition cipher information-theoretically secure for 1 message?

Given: $m = \{0,1\}^{n}$; a plaintext message of length $n$ encoded in binary $k = randomshuffle([0, 1, ..., 2n-1])$; A secret key consisting out of unique numbers between 0 and $2n-1$ in a true ...
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### Randomized algorithms and the one time pad

The way I understand it, an algorithm is said to be randomized if it uses randomness as part of its logic (quoting Wikipedia). Now, in the case of encryption algorithms, I assume this means that for ...
611 views

### Does one time pad randomness help brute force attacks?

I understand that attempting to brute force the decryption of a message coded with a one time pad results in generating every possible message. The Wikipedia example is that decoding "EQNVZ" with key ...
877 views

### Two-timing a one-time pad [duplicate]

Is a one-time pad still breakable on a depth of 2+ if the plaintext is completely random? I'm assuming this idea is wrong, mostly because it occurred to me, but let me walk you through my logic so ...
718 views

### One Time Pads and reuse of the decrypted message?

How is it insecure when Alice encrypts a message with a One-Time-Pad to Bob, and Bob then uses the decrypted message from Alice as the next One-Time-Pad? For example: Alice sends Bob a message ...