Questions tagged [pairings]

Pairing-based cryptography uses bilinear maps to create a gap group that allows efficient constructions of certain primitives.

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How to have a hash function that maps from a group element to a binary string of a certain size in charm-crypto?

I am facing a problem in programming with the charm-crypto library. The hash functions for pairing group elements in charm-crypto can only map from a string to a specific field: $\mathbb Z_r$, $G_1$ ...
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34 views

Developments in ABE using Pairings

What are the recent developments in Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) using Pairings assumptions? Is pairings the most viable assumption while designing ABE. What other assumptions are used for ABE ...
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35 views

Multiplication of pairings vs. exponentiation of the group elements

Assume that we have a pairing as $e:G_1\times G_2\rightarrow G_T$. such that $g_1$ and $g_2$ are the generator of $G_1$ and $G_2$ respectively. In a protocol I have $A=\prod_{i=1}^n e(H(i),pk_i)$ ...
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issues understanding some basic points about identity based encryption

I've been trying to understand an article (https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8538446) about using blockchain to overcome identity based encryption (ibe) drawbacks. My purpose is to be able to code ...
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What's the difference between Optimal ate pairing and R-ate pairing?

I compare the algorithm description of Optimal ate pairing and R-ate pairing, it turns out to me that the formulas are the same. So I'm a little confused, what's the difference between them? or is it ...
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116 views

Pairing-friendly curve whose group order is a safe prime

Are there any pairing-friendly curves whose group order is a safe prime? That is: the order of the group is $2q + 1$ for some prime number $q$. Or, is it impossible to have such groups?
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Chaining a smaller group inside the pairing friendly group

Let's say there is a bilinear pairing $G \times G \rightarrow G_t$ (e.g., for bn128), and let prime $q$ be the order of $G$. Is it possible to find a prime order group over integers such that its ...
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28 views

Can we instantiate VRF without using pairing?

As my survey, most of(I am not sure if it is "all") the constructions of VRF are instantiated with the use of pairing. Can we construct a VRF without using pairing?
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Range proofs and Groth-Sahai PPEs

I'm looking for a set of pairing product equations (ala Groth-Sahai) which allow a prover to prove that the output of a VRF is in a specific range. In the E-cash system in [BCKL] there is a ...
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252 views

Is this pairing-based signature scheme secure?

There are a number of signature schemes on small domains based on bilinear pairings which do not use random oracles. Examples are the Boneh-Boyen schemes and an interesting one from Okamoto which ...
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Independent parameters basis for torsion-groups in SIDH: Is the Weil-pairing necessary?

In the original SIDH paper by De Feo, Jao and Plût, the basis points $P_A$ and $Q_A$ are supposed to be independent points in $E(\mathbb{F}_{p^2})$ of order $\ell_A^{e_A}$ for some small prime $\ell_A$...
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Hard Problems in Pairings

I want to know whether the following problem is considered as a hard problem in complexity theory or not? Given $g,g^a,g^b \in G_1$ (for unknown $a,b\in \mathbb{Z}_p^{\ast}$), compute $e(g,g)^{ab^2}\...
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Why do we use groups, rings and fields in cryptography?

I'm a student of Masters in Cyber Security. I have a habit to understand things from their first principles (at the very beginning). Kindly use any simple mathematical example to answer because I have ...
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64 views

Software implementation of symmetric and asymmetric bilinear pairings

I have recently read a paper about pairings, which only implemented asymmetric bilinear pairings and it mentiond that $\eta_{T}$ pairing is the most efficient algorithm for symmetric pairings. I ...
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How to prove possession of a CL signature in zero-knowledge?

Assume that we have the following signature scheme CL Signature: Choose two cyclic groups $G = \langle g \rangle$ and $G_T = \langle g_T \rangle$ of order $q$, that have a pairing $e$. Uniformly and ...
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1answer
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How to prove in zero-knowledge that the attributes of Pointcheval Sanders signature is the opening of a commitment?

In anonymous credentials schemes, it is possible to anonymously prove knowledge of a signature. Proposals for anonymous credentials with attributes also include a method for proving statements about ...
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1answer
148 views

Can you use ECDSA on pairing-friendly curves?

I'm learning about Elliptic curve cryptography. If I understand right, ECDSA and other algorithms used in ECC are dependent on the curve chosen. So, before you want to use ECDSA, you first have to ...
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1answer
246 views

Is BBS+ 1. a multi-messages signing protocol or 2. a group signature signed by a member of a group anonymously?

There's no doubt that the BBS Signature was born from this classic Short Group Signature paper in 2004. It's capable of Zero-knowledge. In the paper, section 5, it describes how a member of a group, ...
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60 views

Importance of supersingularity of elliptic curves

I'm struggling to understand the high-level idea of "Verifiable Delay Functions from Supersingular Isogenies and Pairings" (https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/166.pdf) by De Feo et al. I will ...
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In q-SDH problem, where are those points $\frac{1}{\beta+x}g_1$ or $g_1^\frac{1}{x+c}$ on elliptic curve?

For the q-SDH problem, given the generator $g_1$ as a point on the elliptic curve, I can picture the $\beta g_1, \beta^2g_1, ..., \beta^qg_1$ since we can simply do the point adding $g_1$ multiple of $...
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126 views

How to achieve identity authentication without revealing credentials

I am looking at a scenario where I would like to claim to an authority (call it A) that I am indeed me without revealing my identity documents. I am guessing some zero knowledge protocol has to be ...
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Exponentiation Problem of G2 in MNT curve

I made a simple python program in the Charm framework (https://github.com/JHUISI/charm): ...
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Where can I find references to the theory behind PBC library?

I don't know if this is the right place to ask this type of question. Anyway, I'm using PBC library for a project, but I'm a very newbie for what concerns pairing based cryptography. Then I ask some ...
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1answer
84 views

Can I convert $F_{q^{12}}$ to $F_q$?

I seeing a paper about Elliptic curve based proxy re-encryption. And I want to implement this through BLS12-381 Curve. However, When looking at the documentation for paring or the library, the value ...
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244 views

What is different between G1×G1→GT and G1×G2→GT in the bilinear pairing?

It is an implementation of the bls12-381 algorithm known as pairing-friendly, at GitHub. Looking at this, the pairing parameters are $G_1$ and $G_2$, $G_1$ is the point of $F_q$, $G_2$ is the point of ...
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How to estimate the computation overhead of ECDSA?

I am using ECDSA as a digital signature scheme. Using Charm, I got the timing for the multiplication, exponentiation, and pairing operations; they take 0.005, 9, and 4.4 ms respectively. I want to ...
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Fixed variable in Groth16

In the paper On the Size of Pairing-based Non-interactive Arguments by Jens Groth, it is always referred in the equations to satisfy that $a_0 = 1$ and the others $a_1, ..., a_m \in \mathbb{F}$. I am ...
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Can Pedersen commitment be used in pairing groups?

For bilinear groups: $(p,\mathbb{G}_1,\mathbb{G_2},\mathbb{G}_T,e,g_1,h_1,g_2,h_2)$, where $\mathbb{G}_1,\mathbb{G_2},\mathbb{G}_T$ are groups of prime oder $p$. $g_1,h_1$ are generators of $\mathbb{G}...
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1answer
149 views

Current situation of bilinear pairing protocols

The bilinear pairings are considered as the key enabler for many novel cryptographic protocols, such as three-party one round DH[1], shorter signatures and certificateless (ID-based) crypto[3] , which ...
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Understanding the groups used in bilinear Ate-pairing

The bilinear ate pairing $e:G_1\times G_2 \rightarrow G_T$ is defined over the following groups: \begin{equation} \begin{aligned} & G_1 = E(\mathbb{F}_p)[r] \cap Ker(\pi_p-[1]), \\ & G_2 = E(...
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Groth-Sahai Proof of multi-exponentiation

I want to create a NIZK proof of a multi-exponentiation via Groth-Sahai proofs. In the lectures of Jens Groth in a winter school of Bar-Ilan University, he shows a way to transform multi-...
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Is the k-sum attack efficient in bilinear pairing variants?

From the k-sum definition, the objective is to solve something like: $\sum_{i=1}^n c_i = v_1$ where $v_1$ is known. If we use Elliptic Curve Points ($C_i$ and $G$) we can define a bilinear pairing ...
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1answer
158 views

Bilinear Map over group of unknown order

Is it possible to build a bilinear map where the underlying group is of unknown order? To maintain context, the original question appears below. As per poncho's excellent answer, my original idea is ...
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82 views

What are the BLS12-381 settings?

I can't find the exact type and settings for the BLS12-381 curve. Is this type-3 in Symmetric XDH settings ?
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124 views

Can BLS aggregate signatures be merged?

In some non-interactive, pairing-friendly signature scheme, such as BLS12-381, is it possible to merge partially-overlapping aggregate signatures? For example, say you have two aggregate signatures, $...
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Pair-friendly elliptic curves vs non friendly

Group law operations on pair-friendly elliptic curves are slower than in non friendly elliptic curves, but how much slower? Can't seem to find a performance comparison between the two for a given ...
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Are all MNT curves assumed to hold XDH?

For one of my projects, I need a pairing group which holds the External co-Diffie-Hellman assumption. I am trying to implement it using Charm crypto python modules which provides support for MNT ...
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1answer
110 views

Variants of Bilinear Diffie-Hellman Assumption

Could someone point me to the paper/reference where the following variant of q-strong Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption was used? Given $s \in \mathbb{Z}_p^*$ and $g, g^{\frac{1}{s}}, g^{s}, g^{s^2},...
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What to learn in order to understand Weil Divisors

My current role as a software developer is leading into areas of research in elliptic-curve-cryptography that keeps bringing me back to bilinear pairings. This includes BLS Signatures, CL Signatures ...
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1answer
35 views

Group Signatures with VLR Revocation Check

I was reading the paper by Boneh et al. Link. The scheme describes what is called a Verifier Local Revocation Technique. The Scheme assumes that a Revocation List [RL] allows each verifier to check ...
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1answer
129 views

Calculation of the order of the cosets used in defining the Tate Pairing

I'm working through Pairings for Beginners by Craig Costello, and am trying to understand the preamble to the Tate pairing. (See p. 70 ff., section 5.2 of of the PDF.). I'm having trouble following a ...
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Pairing-free group based encryption scheme

Can someone explain what is a pairing-free group ? There is encryption schemes, for example 1, that qualify there proposed construction as pairing-free group. However, they use bilinear group in the ...
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1answer
62 views

What's the difference between symmetric and asymmetic multilinear map?

In pairing-based cryptography, we have 3 types, namely Type-I, where $\mathbb{G}_1 = \mathbb{G}_2$, and in Type-II and Type-III we have that $\mathbb{G}_1 \neq \mathbb{G}_2$, however in Type-II we ...
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New Pairing Friendly Curves for SM9

A paper was presented at the INSCRYPT 2018 called: "Searching BN Curves for SM9 (Pay-Walled)" SM9 is a Chinese National Identity Based Cryptography Standard and was originally published using a 256-...
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270 views

Do Weil, Tate, and Ate pairings exist on all elliptic curves?

I don't know much about the math behind elliptic curves. Do Weil, Tate and Ate pairings exist on all elliptic curves? If the answer is negative, then what pairings do MNT, BN and SS curves have? ...
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651 views

What does the number 256 in pairing curve BN256 indicate?

There are many pairing based elliptic curves like MNT curves, BN curves, SS curves etc., When we say BN256 curve, what does the number 256 indicate? Is it some group order or number of bits required ...
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122 views

Is there a concept of embedding degree for non-pairing based elliptic curves?

From this post, I learned the concept of embedding degree. Intuitively, if embedding degree of an elliptic curve $E(F_p)$ is $k$, it means there is a way to transform points in $E(F_p)$ to $F_{p^k}$. ...
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Does this equation hold in a bilinear map?

I would like to verify whether or not the following equation holds: $e(a,c)^{c1\cdot c2\cdot c3}e(b,c)^{c1\cdot c2\cdot c4}==e(a,c)^{c2\cdot c3}e(b,c)^{c1^2\cdot c2\cdot c4}$ for appropriately ...
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53 views

If curve bn256/bls12 support the isomorphism from $G_2$ to $G_1$?

Is bn256 or bls12 a type-2 pairing-friendly curve? As Dan Boneh said here While in many pairing instantiations this ψ exists naturally, in some instantiations it does not. However I can not find ...
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165 views

Are there any NIST curves with pairings?

NIST FIPS.186-4 has standardized 5 ECC curves on field 𝔽𝑝 (P-192, P-224, P-256, P-384, P-521) and 10 elliptic curves on binary fields. None of them seem to have pairings. Are there any standard ...

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