Questions tagged [pbkdf-2]

The Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2 (PBKDF2) is a method of securely deriving encryption keys from a passphrase entered by a user. It features an iteration count that can be deliberately adjusted (key stretching) to slow down brute force password guessing attacks.

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Safest alternative for hashing credit card numbers to use the hash as fingerprint?

Same question asked here in 2014 but since a lot has changed since then, I would like to get feedback from experts on the latest best practices. The problem Our requirement is to provide the ...
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Line by line encrypted logging stored with iv/salt/iterations. How safe is it?

I'm building an encrypted logging application. Log entries are encrypted with AES-256-GCM, using password-derived keys with PBKDF2. The application must support log rotation, and I would like to make ...
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Help with PKCS#12 Cert/Key Bundle

I'm trying to construct a PKCS#12 cert + key bundle using browser-side Javascript so that key generation and storage can all happen locally. Since it's all local and goes from the browser directly ...
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60 views

AES PKCS5 Padding when it's not needed

I'm using AES/ECB with PKCS5 Padding (From what I've read, PKCS7 Padding is actually used internally) and PBKDF2(HMAC-SHA256) to encrypt some passwords in Java. I enter a password, that goes through ...
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is PBKDF2 reversible?

Given an AES key that is wrapped using another AES key, the second one being generated using PBKDF2, and given that I know the wrapped key: can I derive the passphrase that went into the PBKDF2? (...
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can I use PBKDF2 instead of hmac as a hashing tool for sensitive data

I have read about hmac and PBKDF2. PBKDF2 - is mainly used for password hashing. It uses ...
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82 views

Argon2 or scrypt instead of PBKDF2 with AES

Is using scrypt or argon2 a better key stretching technique with AES compared to PBKDF2 or bcrypt with regards to a quantum computer brute force attack. The brute force attack I'm referring to is ...
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What's the use of HMAC in PBKDF2? [duplicate]

As far as I know, PBKDF2 uses an underlying pseudorandom function in order to generate a hash (like SHA256) so as far I understood PBKDF2 is basically a hash function that uses an underlying function ...
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Why use PBKDF2 over SHA-512 to derive AES encryption key? [duplicate]

Suppose I am using user passwords to derive AES-128-CBC encryption key. This key will be used to encrypt some sensitive data for the user so that even the website owner / operator can not decrypt it. ...
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PBKDF2 with SHA-256/512 for low entropy input?

Is there any reason to use something stronger than SHA-1 with PBKDF2 if my input is fairly low entropy? I.e. if the passwords being hashed are only about 30-bits of entropy. I can't find it now, ...
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Why does LastPass use exactly 100100 PBKDF2 rounds

LastPass encryption scheme is recently changed to use more PBKDF2 rounds, specifically 100100. This seems like a really weird number choose. From what I understand brute force time scales linearly ...
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What is the purpose of salting when integrating PBKDF2 with AES?

I'm a bit new to cryptography and I'm trying to wrap my head around PBKDF2 and AES. As a disclaimer, this is not going to be used in an actual application, I'm just testing things locally as a fun ...
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using different IV and SALT with AES-CBC but same KEY

I'm working on this project where a client can send a message, now obviously sending it in plainText is not very smart. So I decided to Encrypt it with AES-CBC. Now, each time I encrypt something, ...
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What value for a Rfc2898 (PKBDF2) is overkill?

I am working on a project which needs to share messages, and part of that project is deriving a password, I am currently using a value of 65537, totally arbitrary (...
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Why cryptsetup default KDF is PBKDF2 and not Argon2(id)?

I plan to do a clean install of ArchLinux with Full Disk Encryption (with LUKS) but I'm not sure to understand the default KDF choice (PBKDF2+SHA-256). I didn't manage to find any pieces of evidence ...
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Is there any difference in security between S2K and PBKDF2?

S2K is a KDF designed for the OpenPGP standard which concatenates a password and salt and feeds this, repeating, into a hash function for a configurable number of bytes. PBKDF2 is a KDF which uses a ...
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Should we run PBKDF2 for every plaintext to be protected or should we run PBKDF2 only once?

I am going to store secrets from users. The secrets need to be stored confidentially. For this question, I am concerned only with confidentiality (not integrity). Here is how my encryption scheme is: ...
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How is PBKDF2 so much better than normal Hashing or even using HMAC

I do not know how the Key Length extension attack works. So if we leave that aside for once, and say just about usual brute-force attack on the hash, I don't really know how is PBKDF2 so much better ...
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What is used as a KEY and MESSAGE when using HMAC within a PBKDF2? [duplicate]

I was studying WPA2 and it's security when I came across this problem. I know that WPA2 uses PBKDF2 to generate a Pairwise Master Key. It does something like this; ...
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113 views

Can you derive a 128 bit AES encryption key using PBKDF2 with SHA-256

I got confused about key derivation functions. For my project, I need to derive a 128 bits AES encryption key in CTR mode. To do so, I'm using a PBKDF2 to derive this encryption key using an initial ...
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“Work factor” and “iteration count” nomenclature in adaptive functions

In adaptive functions like PBKDF2 / bcrypt I often read people refer to "iteration count" and others refer to "work factor", and they seem to be used interchangeably (even though they're not - the ...
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How to validate a PBKDF2 password

I want to encrypt several files correctly with a PBKDF2 generated key (using a password and salt), I am currently doing so but if I enter the wrong password, as expected an exception occurs. Note: ...
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One way hash of data records (PBKDF2?)

I'm looking for a way of one way hash data for multiple records. We have a privacy requirement to anonymise information "after it's used for its intended purpose" which is a little wooly at best. I'd ...
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477 views

Why derive keys from a master key instead of generating random keys?

I noticed AWS KMS generates encryption keys based off of a master key, using a key derivation function (HKDF). What's the practical advantage of deriving keys based on a master key? Isn't it simpler ...
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Using a KDF (PBKDF2) properly

I am new to crypto. I have a password for my user, e.g. &&38:while:HAVE:havana:60&& I want to encrypt several documents with 10 pages each with AES....
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425 views

Is it safe to split the output of PBKDF2?

I would like to know if splitting a key generated by PBKDF2 to derive two keys is a safe practice. Concretely, in my system, I need to derive two keys. One for symmetric cipher used in the client ...
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Deriving a key from a pseudo-random string

I would like to know if deriving a key from a pseudo-random string with a single iteration is secure. Concretely, I am designing a system where a secret key is derived in the client side, and then ...
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162 views

How to make my hash more robust to the brute force?

I'm using PBKDF2 SHA 256 with 100 000 iterations to generate a secret. I want to increase the cost of brute forcing the passphrase I use to generate the secret. I'm thinking of using scrypt after ...
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148 views

What is the most secure way to check that a given masterkey is valid?

For the purposes of learning, I'm writing a small utility that allows encrypting a list of passwords using a single master key (using AES-256 and PBKDF2) Before encrypting or decrypting any password ...
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How many bits should I request from PBKDF2 to create a strong password?

I'm building a tool which generates passwords by hashing a service name with a master key. PBKDF2 was primarily chosen due to availability in the Web Crypto API. What would be a secure value for the ...
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427 views

KDF Salt: How/When is it Okay for it to be public?

Post Structure: Prior source material studied Question & Details Assumed threat model Example Assumptions Clarifications Prior source material studied 0.1. RFC 2898 0.2. HAC (Handbook of ...
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Can one trade off the number of iterations for key length with the PBKDF2?

When using the PBKDF2, is one taking on significant risk if one chooses to lower the number of iterations and choose to have very long keys? Can I XOR my message with a a very long key (plain-text ...
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Does it matter if I append the secret to the salt or pass it in separately?

I'm using PBKDF2, and this is my current call. key = pbkdf2-hmac-sha256(iterations = 100_000, secret = password ++ salt) I recently learnt that the function I'm ...
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Does having an SHA256 hash compromise PBKDF2 secrecy?

If I have a password pwd, and I hash it with SHA256 and send it to a server for authentication (server will apply ...
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996 views

Should number of iterations of PBKDF2 stay secret?

Let's say I encrypt my passwords with PBKDF2 and store it somewhere. Now let's say it was stolen and the hacker, who stole it knows it was hashed with PBKDF2. Does a knowledge of number of iterations ...
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Client-side password stretching - danger of the salt being public?

In case of using client-side password stretching (plus a single hash on the server) - the server would need to send the salt before authentication, of course. Though the salt is not considered a real ...
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Are PBKDF2 derived keys related if only the number of iterations is changed?

I'd like to encrypt my disk with a password. To generate a nice key from a password, I used PBKDF2, which applies a hash function $k$ times to a cleartext and outputs the final result. When I ...
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Does PBKDF2 reveal any knowledge about the salt?

DK = PBKDF2(PRF, Password, Salt, c, dkLen) When PBKDF2 is used for key derivation (not password hashing), is it possible for an adversary who doesn't know ...
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The logic of preferring PBKDF2 over iterative SHA2

I have studied PBKDF2 for the application of hashing passwords, and frankly I don't understand the justification for the complexity of PBKDF2 over iterative hashing with a cryptographic hash function. ...
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Create key for AES-256 in Node.JS [closed]

I'm trying to create a strong key for encrypting some data using AES-256 for fun and practice. For my own practice, I want to make this as strong as possible, I don't care how long it takes to ...
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463 views

Is transporting a salt, IV, ciphertext and HMAC in an encrypted token an acceptable practice?

I’m porting over some crypto code from Mcrypt (deprecated) to OpenSSL. I’m following a process that a former employee implemented, which is as follows: Create a random salt for use in a PBKDF2 key ...
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Is it problematic to use PBKDF2-HMAC-SHA256 to derive a 512-bit XTS key?

PBKDF2 should only be used to generate a larger output than the hash function it uses if the output is used in such a way that it has a flat keyspace. As far as I am aware, XTS does not have a flat ...
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469 views

Storing Salt in Ciphertext?

I found the cryptomator encryption documentation online, because I was looking for something to learn about x). I altered the process a bit to fit "my need" / so that I would not have a vault, but a ...
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Mechanism of PBKDF in encryption key generation with passphrase

I want to roughly understand how the mechanism works of generating an encryption key from a passphrase, by which we encrypt a volume or file. I'm familiar with public key encryption, the concept of a ...
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185 views

Multithreading PBKDF2 or javascript alternative

I'm using PBKDF2 in browser (can't use bcrypt, users are likely to have passwords > 72bytes, or whatever the number was). PBKDF2 is running in a webworker, something like so ...
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Is HMAC a suitable substitute for HKDF?

My PHP version does not include the hash_hkdf() function, and upgrading versions is not worth the trouble for my project (which is for personal pleasure, not for ...
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987 views

I think PBKDF2 may be better than Scrypt? Looking for someone to point out my logical error

People seem to mostly recommend scrypt these days, but I'm not sure if this should be the case? I'll structure this post by just making an argument for PBKDF2 over Scrypt and then you can reply ...
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How many bits of entropy are leaked for every derived password from a master?

Given a master password that has a lot of entropy (similar to Bitcoin HD wallet seed words, 130 bits of entropy or more) how many bits of entropy are lost per leaked generated password? Let's take an ...
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PBKDF2 with longer than native output length - Will hashing the result help?

I've seen it mentioned more than once that PBKDF2 should not be used to create a longer key than the native output (such as 160 bits when used with HMACSHA1). Since an attacker could test only the ...
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850 views

HMACSHA1 vs HMACSHA2 (for PBKDF2)

I need to choose an HMAC function for PBKDF2. I'm using .net so I don't have the option to use SHA3. At first glance, and according to this answer by Thomas Pornin it seems like SHA512 would be best....