Questions tagged [pseudo-random-generator]

In cryptography, a pseudo-random generator (PRG) is a deterministic procedure that maps a random seed to a longer pseudo-random string such that no statistical test can distinguish between the output of the generator and the uniform distribution. Pseudo-random generators have numerous applications in cryptography. For instance, pseudo-random generators provide an efficient analog of one-time pads.

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What if inputs of OWF and PRG is non-uniform?

If $f: \{0,1\}^n→\{0,1\}^m$ is a $(t,\epsilon)$-one-way function, meaning that no adversary of running time $t$ is able to invert $f$ (on input uniformly chosen from $\{0,1\}^n$) with probability more ...
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composition of RLWE distributions

Assume we have the polynomial space $R_q$ defined as $R_q = Z_q/(X^n + 1)$. Additionally, we define the error distribution $\chi$ as a discrete centred Gaussian bounded by $B$. Let $s,t \in R_q$ be ...
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Construction PRG with expansion factor from a length preserving PRF [duplicate]

How can I prove that $F:\{0,1\}^n\to\{0,1\}^n$ is a length-preserving pseudorandom function, then $$G:G(s)= F_s(1)\mathbin\|F_s(2)\mathbin\|\cdots\mathbin\| F_s(l)$$ is a pseudorandom generator with ...
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How to prove the pseudorandomness of CryptoPAn

in my cryptography course, we are learning about pseudo randomness and the prefix-preserving function known as CryptoPAn invented in 2002. It is said that the scheme is highly insecure. So in that ...
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Am I applying Hybrid lemma and proof by contradiction correctly?

In the following scenario, I am trying to apply proof by contradiction. My idea is to use a Hybrid lemma. So if I am able to distinguish $G'$, this implies we are able to distinguish $G$. But we ...
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Rigorous practical pseudorandom generators

It is known that existence of pseudorandom generators (PRGs) is equivalent to the existence of one-way functions. In turn, the latter is an open problem. I am curious if someone developed kind of &...
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Is a LFSR sufficient for post-processing a biased TRNG?

I am building a TRNG on a FPGA based on ring oscillators. I found out that Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) are commonly used for the post-processing of TRNGs. Here is my initial design: Let's ...
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Question about IETF RFC6979 determinisitc (EC)DSA document section 3.6 additional data k'

In RFC6979 document https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6979 page 14~15, Section 3.6 "Variants" o. Additional data may be added to the input of HMAC, concatenated after bits2octets(H(m)): ...
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Is Fibonacci-XOR-rotate one-way-ish?

Fix $n\in\mathbb{N}$ with $n > 2$ and consider the following method. Pick relatively prime seeds $x_1, x_2 \in \{0,1\}^n$ (where $x_1, x_2$ are interpreted as binary numbers. Then proceed with the ...
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What is the NIST recommended maximum bias for random number generators?

What is the maximum bias recommended by NIST for random number generators? This answer says that it is $2^{-64}$. Is it same for all applications? Does NIST have a publication with more information? I ...
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Shift-rotating random number generator

Let $\omega$ denote the set of non-negative integers. For $n\in\omega\setminus\{0\} $ define the rotation function $$\text{rot}_n:\{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}^n$$ by $x \mapsto x'$ where $x'_k = x_{k+1}$ ...
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How to combine $n$ 'less random' bits to generate one 'more random' bit?

Suppose we have a random number generator badrand() generating 1 with probability $0.9$ and 0...
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In the reduction proof below, where OWF exists only if is a PRG. I am not able to understand the highlighted part

I am able to understand how G(x) id generated. But then what is the use of variable z. Also if the probability is >1/2 + e then the distinguisher wins! Then how is this still a OWF
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How to prove that the given encryption scheme have ciphertext indistinguishability for all PPT adversaries?

I am not sure how to prove that the given two scheme is perfectly indistinguishable for all PPT adversaries!
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Pseudorandom Generator Expansion

I have a question regarding the theoretic definition of Pseudorandom Generators. In Katz & Lindell's textbook (2nd edition), Definition 3.14 (p. 62), it is defined as follows: DEFINITION 3.14. ...
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Is there a way to bound linear complexity of a sequence less than its period

Linear complexity of a sequence $s_0,s_1,\ldots$ over a finite field is the shortest length $n$ of linear recurrence of the sequence such that $s_{n+j}=\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}a_is_{i+j}$ for $j=0,1,2,\ldots$ ...
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Is it guaranteed that all possible random numbers can be produced?

As far as I know PRGs get an input (seed) and generate a larger output value than the input. Therefore is it possible that some outputs will never be generated? based on the fact that input is smaller ...
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A question regarding next-bit predictors

Consider a probability distribution $D$ over $n$ bit strings. Consider a next bit predictor $A$ as follows. \begin{equation} \underset{X \sim D}{\text{Pr}}[A(X_1X_2.....X_{k-1})=X_k] \geq \frac{1}{2} +...
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Is this a good Pseudo-Random Number Generator? [closed]

I discovered what appears to be a good quality pseudorandom number generator, but I have not subjected it to any statistical tests beyond bit frequency, bit pair frequency, and least-significant bit ...
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Why do some people believe that humans are “bad at” generating random numbers/characters like this?

I'm not even sure if they are serious, but I've heard many times that some people refuse to not only trust their computer to generate a random string (which is understandable) but also don't trust ...
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K-dimensional equidistribution - how big are periods of PCG?

I'm trying to figure out what is period of PCG generator XSL-RR-RR: https://www.pcg-random.org https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permuted_congruential_generator If we use just random multiplier and ...
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Why should a distribution being pseudorandom strictly be a sequence of distributions being pseudorandom

According to Katz Lindell book, Let Dist be a distribution on l-bit strings. Informally, Dist is pseudorandom if the experiment in which a string is sampled from Dist is indistinguishable from the ...
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How does a pseudorandom generator produce a similar distribution to $U_{n}$?

According to Wikipedia, a function ${\displaystyle G:\{0,1\}^{\ell }\to \{0,1\}^{n}}$ with ${\displaystyle \ell < n}$ is a pseudorandom generator against $\mathcal {A}$ with bias $\epsilon$ if, ...
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Nth term for Linear Congruence Generators

We can get the N+1th term for a Linear Congruence Generator like this: x[n+1] = A * x[n] (mod m) by raising the A to the exponent of n like this: ...
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Cryptographically secure linear congruential generator - is it possible?

Let's consider generator: $x_{n+1} = (a \cdot x_{n} + c) \mod m$ And let's assume we will meet three requirements known as Hull–Dobell Theorem. Also consider only $m=2^{i}$ (then $c$ has to be odd). ...
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Questions about using PRF to construct PRG

Let F be a secure pseudorandom function with 128-bit key and 256-bit block length. Which are the following functions G are secure pseudorandom generators? (Select all that apply.) A. $G(x)=F_x(0...0)$...
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Why this example about pseudorandom generators is performed like that?

Suppose Alice wishes to authenticate herself to Bob, by proving she knows a secret that they share. With pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) they could proceed as follows. They both seed a PRNG ...
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Deterministic Counter Mode with a PRF. What does evaluate at a point mean?

This is from Dan Boneh's Lecture where he talks about operating a PRF (AES, DES) in Deterministic Counter Mode. Dan Boneh says What we could do is we could use what's called a deterministic counter ...
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Unable to understand the concept of a 1-bit PRF

In his lecture on building Block Ciphers from PRGS, Dan Boneh says this Let’s start by finding out if we can build PRF from a PRG? Let $G:\ K \to K^2$ be a secure PRG Define 1-bit PRF $F:\ K \times \{...
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Tests to distinguish between PRNG and a CSPRNG

What are the tests which a regular PRNG would fail but a CSPRNG would succeed? Is it just the next-bit test or are there multiple other tests which a PRNG which is not a CSPRNG would fail? Would a ...
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Understanding the Inner State of a RNG

Based on the BSI evaluation criteria for quality of deterministic random number generators: K4 – It should be impossible, for all practical purposes, for an attacker to calculate, or guess from an ...
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PRG exponential expansion

I am just beginning to read into pseudorandom generators and I came across this definition for a PRG: $G_n : \{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^{l(n)}, \quad \text{ where $l(n)$ is a polynomial}$ Is there ...
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How to combine a PRG and a non-PRG to design a PRG?

I'm trying to solve the following exercise: Let $G_1, G_2: \{0,1\}^\lambda \to \{0,1\}^{\lambda + l}$ be two deterministic functions mapping $\lambda$ bits into $\lambda + l$ bits (for $l \ge 1$). You ...
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Proof that PRG of itself is a PRG (composition)

I have this question and I am struggling to find a formal answer to this: Given $G$ is a PRG, show that $H(s)=G(G(s))$ is also a PRG. I know that a proof for this would assume that there exists a p....
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Why is breaking the Blum Blum Shub PRNG not an undecidable problem?

The Blum Blum Schub (BBS) pseudo random number generator (PRNG) is defined inductively by $$ x_{i+1} = x_i^2 \mod N $$ to generate the bit sequence $b_0b_1b_2...$ where the bits are taken to be the ...
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Bad pseudo-random number generator — any guesses?

I'm trying to diagnose a badly-implemented pseudo-random number generator. The two key features of the bit streams produced by this PRNG are: significant correlation of consecutive bits (approximately ...
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Concatenation of PRFs is PRG

$F$ be a PRF, is the following $G(x)=F_{0…0}(x)||F_{1…1}(x)$ a PRG?
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What is the advantage of guessing PRG impossible outputs?

Lets say we have a length-tripling PRG $$ G:\{0,1\}^l \to \{0,1\}^{3l}$$ What would the advantage of an adversary to guess one of the impossible outputs of G?
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Are there any universal PRG’s or PRF’s?

Leonid Levin constructed a universal one-way function, i.e. a function $f$ such that if any one-way functions exist, then $f$ is a one-way function. My question is, what universal pseudorandom ...
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Proving G(x)=x||[x^2 mod 2^N] is not a PRG

This was a question from my exam yesterday. We have that $G:\{0, 1\}^n\rightarrow \{0, 1\}^{2n}$ and $$G(x)=x\mathbin\|[x^2 \bmod 2^n]$$ with $x$ is uniform and $|x|=n$, give an efficient ...
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PRF and deterministic polytime function implie PRG

I'm struggling while trying to resolve this exercise. I already read all questions about PRG and PRF here and some proofs around the internet but none of them helped me. let's consider a function $C$ ...
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Fast cryptographic hash function for short inputs

I am looking for a cryptographic hash function optimized for speed on short inputs, in order to implement a pseudorandom generator with expansion factor 2 (e.g. takes 16 bytes of input and outputs 32 ...
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Pseudorandom Generator

In a cryptographic application, two types of (pseudo)random bit streams are needed: a stream $A= a_{1}a_{2}a_{3}\ldots$ in which $\Pr[a_{i}=0]=\Pr[a_{i}=1]= 1/2\ \forall i$ and a stream $B= b_{1}b_{2}...
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How does a hybrid argument work relating to PRG's?

How does a hybrid argument work relating to PRG's? I am working on a homework assignment where the problems say to use a hybrid argument to prove/disprove that something is a secure PRG, and I can't ...
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Lehmer random number generator cipher scheme with moving bits

Let's consider linear congruential generator: $X_{k+1} = a \cdot X_{k} \mod 2^{128}$ Such that $a$ is some number which for every 128-bit input $X_{k}$ from $0$ to $2^{128}-1$ will give us different ...
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Cryptographically secure PRBGs and the previous-bit test

I am reading Junod's paper about the Blum-Blum-Shub PRBG (BBS) and I am having trouble following his reasoning at on page 15, where he argues that the next-bit test can also be peformed for the ...
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Lehmer random number generator - cipher?

Let's consider linear congruential generator: $X_{k+1} = a \cdot X_{k} \mod 2^{128}$ Such that $a$ is some number which for every 128-bit input $X_{k}$ from $0$ to $2^{128}-1$ will give us different ...
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How to calculate CPA attack complexity in bits manipulation

The following Forward Errors Correcting FEC is used in our daily devices. But I added a potential security measure. In one of FEC systems the input is $K$ bits and the output code is $M$ bits where $M=...
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Ranking “amount of randomization” in a sequence

I'm facing the problem of implementing pseudo random bit generator (PRBG) on a very low power device. NIST.SP800-22 "Statistical test suite for Pseudo Random Generators" suggests a suite of ...

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