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Questions tagged [public-key]

An asymmetric cipher is an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. This way the encrypting key need not be kept secret to ensure a private communication. Similarly in public key authentication, the verification key can be public and the signing key private.

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Does the public key and private key for WhatsApp only remain within a WhatsApp account

The world of cryptography is starting to really intrigue me admittedly. I initially hated it because it looked too hard Mathematically but now it looks cool :) Got a good question for the experts and ...
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How to exchange a secret through untrusted server in two steps?

I have a web application where I control the server, however, it should not have any knowledge of secrets that are exchanged between its users. This server holds RSA public keys of each registered ...
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How is public-key cryptography secure?

Quite strange question, but here goes: I don't quite understand how asymmetric encryption works. Take SSH for an example: The server will always be listening for commands, so anyone who has the ...
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Security of BLS under additional information on the secret key

Question A Is the BLS signature scheme still secure if an adversary in addition to the public key $ pk = g_2 \, sk \in \mathbb{G}_2 $ also obtains additional information on the private key $ sk $, ...
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How to ensure confidentiality of an encrypted but public message given that computation power increases?

Say I encrypt a message with the public key of a party whom I want to contact with and then send the ciphertext over an insecure channel. Naturally, an adversary who listens to this channel can ...
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Newbie question: one-way functions in cryptography

I'm reading this article on the basics of cryptography and it says that the main principle is about taking such an algorithm that knowing the end result and the algorithm, an eavesdropper wouldn't be ...
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Asymmetrical encryption with multiple sufficient key-pairs [duplicate]

I have the following requirement: There are N public/private RSA key pairs. The encrypted data must be decryptable by any of the private keys alone, but not by any other key. For encryption, the ...
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101 views

What is it known about the hardness of the factorization search problem in non-commutative crypto?

The factorization search is an interesting problem in non-commutative crypto that can be defined as: Given an element $c$ of a group $G$, two subgroups $A,B \leqslant G$. Find two elements $a\in A$ ...
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Applicability of physical unclonable functions for public-key cryptography

Can physical unclonable functions (PUFs) be used to protect secrets against physical tampering in the context of public-key cryptography? Some solutions (i.e. ChipDNA or QuiddiKey) apparently use ...
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Does this scheme break under a DHP adversary?

Consider the following cryptography scheme: We are given a prime $p$. Alice wants to send the plaintext $m \pmod p$ to Bob. Alice chooses $a$ s.t. $\text{gcd}(a,p-1)=1$, and sends Bob, $u = m^a \...
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Private Key Sharding - How is it Secure in a Distributed Network?

In a Distributed Network in order for a private key not to be compromised sharding will have to take place off the network, correct? If so: Why is it when a Distributed Network shards private keys ...
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Given enough RSA signature values, is it possible to determine the public key value?

Given enough RSA signature values, is it possible to determine which public key is required to verify the values? Could there be enough information to establish which key is required? Is there ...
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Could ANY cipher serve as the foundation for a public key cryptosystem?

My reasoning goes like this: In principle, any trapdoor function can serve as the foundation for an asymmetric encryption scheme. All ciphers are trapdoor functions, since it's easier to encrypt ...
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Can one design an asymmetric encryption scheme based on any secret sharing scheme? Are they that closely related?

I've seen both asymmetric encryption and secret sharing schemes based on graph 3-coloring, and I'm curious if this is a coincidence due to some peculiar property of graph 3-coloring alone.
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How to use public/private keys in elliptic curve cryptography to encrypt/decrypt information

I'm reading a bit about elliptical curve cryptography. The basic idea is to define a dot-operator on the points of an elliptic curve. Given a starting point $P$, and applying this dot-operation $n$ ...
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Encrypt a file in a way that decryption requires every recipient's cooperation

The best related concept I can think of is the two-man rule. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-man_rule. To put it simply, n people are required to give their authorization before a system / secret ...
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Random Masking of Padded RSA Ciphertext through homomorphism

I had asked a question related to this before: Oblivious Decryption: Decrypting with a private key, without knowing the message @rikhavshah has an answer, which I would like to discuss the security ...
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Oblivious Decryption: Decrypting with a private key, without knowing the message

I’m trying to devise a protocol, complimentary to a private-set-intersection, involving three parties, namely Alice, Bob and Charlie. Alice has a public and a private key. And receives website logs ...
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Restoring a point on an elliptic curve

I received a representation of a point on an elliptic curve $GF(2^m)$ (with curve coefficient A, B) in specific format and some description how to decode it but not all is clear to me. I would be ...
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Finite Automata and Application to Cryptography

The automated inverse theory in cryptography, points to autonomous finite automata, which is relative to the canonical form for one-key cryptosystems based on finite automata, the public key ...
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If the Riemann hypothesis solved

"Sir Michael Atiyah claims to have demonstrated a simple solution to the Riemann hypothesis". If solved, what results we will have in Cryptography?
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Are any public key algos commutative?

Are there any public key encryption algorithms that allows for arbitrary ordering of crypto operations (commutative). That is, given a plaintext $\text{message}_1$, the following operations work to ...
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Public Key Encryption scheme with small messages among many parties

Question Is it possible to create a public key encryption scheme, with $n$ parties, where a party can send all other parties a bit unique to each party in less than $n$ bits? Assume we can set up a ...
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Can a digital signature scheme also be an encryption scheme?

Using Schnorr signatures, one could devise a system where a single public key can represent multiple signers. Do signature schemes like that represent crypto systems usable for encryption? In that ...
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Could one make an asymmetric encryption scheme based on Sudoku?

I was reading about a Polly Cracker encryption scheme based on the graph 3-coloring problem. Aren't Latin squares just a form of the same problem? If so, does this mean Sudoku can be used for public/...
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How secure is a system that retrieves encrypted private keys from a public database?

The system in question is one with multiple users. Each user has a password associated with their account, and each user owns several public-private keypairs. A user's private keys are encrypted using ...
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Is it Ok to reverse the usage of public key and private key

Well things like this, my coworker suggest exchange the private key between server and client and using public key to decrypt message privately, his reason is, this is just the same as normal usage, ...
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Can public key cryptography survive quantum computers? [duplicate]

Quantum computation is based on the superposition principle of quantum physics. Bits in a normal computer are either 0 or 1. Quantum physics allows bits to be in a superposition of 0 and 1, in the ...
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On Program Verification Through zk-SNARKs

Can you provide an example use case of program verification using zk-SNARKs that explains: What it actually means to verify the execution; What are the implication of this new technology; How does it ...
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RSA: Private key given public key, plain text, and cipher text with no padding?

Are there attacks which will return the RSA private key when the attacker knows the public key, plain text, and cipher text when no padding is used in the RSA algorithm? If yes, what are the known ...
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Public key encryption and decryption with private key [closed]

I am learning cryptography and here is what I understood so far: Story. I decide to talk with my friend over unencrypted channel. We exchange public keys with each other so that we can encrypt ...
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Is it bad to expose the public key?

I am studying about blockchain and have been focusing on encryption protocols that allow authentication. The digital signature of public and private key seems solid, I have focused on the algorithm ...
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Using nested signatures to trust public key of inner signatures

I have a scenario where entity $A$ has an unauthentic copy of the public key $P_B$ of $B$ and an authentic copy of $P_C$ of $C$, trusted by both $A$ and $B$. Now $A$ wants to establish trust in $P_B$...
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How big an RSA key is considered secure today?

I think 1024 bit RSA keys were considered secure ~5 years ago, but I assume that's not true anymore. Can 2048 or 4096 keys still be relied upon, or have we gained too much computing power in the ...
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is the functional signature result relies on f(x) or on x where x is a message and f is a function?

I am new on cryptography and I have a question about the functional signature scheme. The notion was introduced in this paper. In a functional signature scheme, there is a standard signature and ...
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466 views

How to generate tokens from a secret key?

The problem is simple: I want to be able to spit out 256-bit "tokens" that only I could've produced because I know my secret key $s$, and given any number of these tokens, no one can figure what $s$ ...
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Certificate public key keyexchange, Which key exchange is used in browsers?

I have a question regarding the keyexchange happening in web browsers. If you check the certificate here on crypto.stackexchange you can go under details and see that the public key is type RSA (2048 ...
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Minimum number of public and private keys depending on signature?

I'm trying to make sure I understand and intuit things properly here, so I'm going to be somewhat lengthy? With this, as I did a cursory search here and couldn't find exactly the case examples I'm ...
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Oblivious Encryption: Oblivious Transfer Based Encryption

I’m aware of a couple of OT protocols, most of which use Public Key Cryptography, Key Establishment (or similar constructs) as the base. I don’t really have specific knowledge on other OT protocols, ...
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Encrypting with Asymmetric keys

I'm designing a system where the client asked for documents to be encrypted with "asymmetric cryptography". I've explained them that the best practice is to encrypt the data with a symmetric ...
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GPG Sub Key Renewal Questions

Last year, I followed this guide to create two GnuPG Smart Cards; one card with the Primary Key and the other card with the Sub-keys. I noticed that the sub keys were close to expiring so I renewed ...
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Implementing a zero-knowledge proof [duplicate]

I'm trying to get my head around zero-knowledge proofs and my definition of a zero-knowledge proof is as follows. A zero-knowledge proof is a method by which one party can prove to another party ...
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Issues with Elliptic Curve Point Addition

I'm trying to implement elliptic curve point addition in hardware. I've managed to create a working module using Affine coordinates however I've been reading about how points can be added by using ...
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1answer
104 views

Hybrid encryption for MQTT payload?

i've written a simple code for payload encryption, i'v done it with AES-128 CBC mode ,it works fine ,the senario is very simple : the publisher send a JSON payload format that includes the encryption ...
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RSA public key of dead cryptographers

Two cryptographic schemes—RSA accumulators, and RSA-based Verifiable Delay Functions (VDFs) such as this one—require an RSA modulus to operate. These RSA constructions are secure if the trapdoor, ...
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General Private/Public key generation

I wanted to get an idea on how the whole cold-storage private/public key generation works for different cryptocurrencies. So I was playing around with BIP32 deriviation path on: https://iancoleman.io/...
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Non-derivable public key asymmetrical encryption? [duplicate]

The need we have is to pass encrypted messages but such that the encryption key can't be generated from the decryption key. This rhymes with vanilla asymmetrical crypto, but in every schema I've seen,...
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How is a ciphertext encrypted using random numbers decrypted using a symmetric key algorithm

We use true random number generators as a source of keys for encryption. What I can not wrap my head around is: How is this cipher text decrypted in case of symmetric key algorithm as we need the same ...
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Inverse public-key encryption

I'm in the need of an inverse public-key encryption method where you encrypt with the private key and decrypt with the public key. In other words an asymetric encryption where you can't generate the ...