Questions tagged [public-key]

An asymmetric cipher is an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. This way the encrypting key need not be kept secret to ensure a private communication. Similarly in public key authentication, the verification key can be public and the signing key private.

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Sharing an encrypted file between a group of people

Is there any way to share an encrypted file with a group? In the other words, can I encrypt a file with a public key so that each person in a group decrypt it with his/her private key? Is there any ...
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How to jusify {e,n} is a valid RSA public key?

I have a two set of key {36,77} and {50,117}, How can validate if it is a valid RSA public keys? Is there any simple method?
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Inverse public-key encryption

I'm in the need of an inverse public-key encryption method where you encrypt with the private key and decrypt with the public key. In other words an asymetric encryption where you can't generate the ...
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Paillier subtraction for negative result

I am trying to figure out subtraction on Paillier. From what I read so far, given $m_1$ smaller than $m_2$ ($m_1<m_2$) I can compute $E(m_2-m_1)$ as $E(m_2)\cdot E(m_1)^{-1}$ where $E(m_1)^{-1}$ ...
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Emulate multisignature wallet

I have a blockchain wallet with a single signature wallet, is there a way of making this wallet "multi-signature"? F.e can we use some secret sharing scheme to distribute the single private key among ...
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How can we get CA's public key?

To get a public key of some organization or someone we want to send an encrypted message to, we need to make a request to CA asking that organization's public key. CA then returns X509 certificate. It ...
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Is there a feasible way to generate an RSA key manually the same way as it is for an ECC one?

In elliptic curves, a private key is just a random number, and one relatively small compared to other crypto systems (256 bits for ECC vs 4096 bits for RSA for example). Suppose I don't trust ...
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RSA encryption/decryption process is not working correctly

I'm trying to apply the RSA cryptosystem to encrypt a byte M=72, using predefined modulus n, public key exponent ...
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How to find at least one private key from a large list of compressed public keys secp256k1

Not long ago I saw a discussion on the Bitcoin Talk forum: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5060735.msg50736695#msg50736695 Please give advice and working methods? Is it possible to find at ...
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ECDSA vs ECIES vs ECDH

Recently I started studying Elliptic Curve Cryptography and I just loved it. I want to transfer some big data (like 3KB), What is the best method, ECDSA, ECIES, or ECDH (and why)? I am confused, how ...
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Multi-party encryption algorithm

To give some foreground information: I acknowledge that I am a cryptography newb and not by any means an expert (and probably never will be). In a recent CS class we had several assignments writing ...
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Why do we encrypt-then mac but sign-then-encrypt?

This question was asked in comments on my answer to should we sign then encrypt or encrypt then sign. I think posing the question as a separate entity is best, so: The general advice for applying ...
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When to use RSA and when ElGamal asymmetric encryption

If i am not wrong in cryptography there are 2 basic cryptographic schemes for public key cryptography. RSA encryption whose security is based on the infeasibility of solving the factoring of big ...
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Why does RSA need p and q to be prime numbers?

This is a clarifying thread after finding: What makes RSA secure by using prime numbers?. Despite the fact that this question was answered already, I am still struggling to really grasp the ...
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Multiple private keys for single public key

I am currently working in security in mobile ad-hoc networks. I have several clusters, and I want to send some data encrypted with its public key, from the cluster head to the cluster members. I ...
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Is it possible to derive a public key from another public key without knowing a private key (Ed25519)?

I have a following use case: User has his master public (sk) - private (pk) key pair (Ed25519). In DB we store a public key. Is ...
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New quantum attack on lattices (or Shor strikes again)?

Lior Eldar and Peter W. Shor published a paper on arXiv.org in which they present a new quantum algorithm against a variant of BDD. They claim that their new algorithm can efficiently solve the ...
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How does one verify a GPG/PGP key revocation?

After revoking a key and sending the revocation to MIT's keyserver, I noticed that the key is listed as such: ...
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How can I remove my personal data from my PGP public key?

According to this Q&A-discussion it is possible to remove all personal data (name and mail address) that is attached to a public key. What steps do I have to follow in order to remove all ...
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Is it possible to pick your Ed25519 public key?

Is it possible to generate an Ed25519 keypair that has a very similar public key as another keypair (fooling a casual visual comparison) or is this as hard as solving one of SHA-512 or the discrete ...
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How is the message digest related to Signatures and Encryption?

I was studying about 'Data Security' and I found out this one thing confusing. What is a message digest? I got it is the hash of the message. Is the message here referring to the plaintext or cipher ...
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Can or can not D-Wave's quantum computers use Shor's and Grover's Algorithm to find encryption keys? Why?

I read that a company called D-Wave Systems has and is manufacturing quantum computers of 128 qubits. Can they or can they not use Shor's and Grover's algorithms for finding RSA-keys? If they can't ...
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Is there an algorithm to find the number of intersections of two sets?

Suppose both I and my friend have a set of integer numbers. We want to know the number of common elements in our two sets but without knowing elements of the sets of each other. So I don't want my ...
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Why are asymmetric cryptography keys more vulnerable to brute force attack than symmetric ones?

I came across this paper which says that Asymmetric keys must be many times longer than keys in secret-cryptography in order to boast equivalent security. Keys in asymmetric cryptography are ...
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Random Coin Flip using ElGamal and a Trusted Party

An old exam question I am trying to figure out: Consider the following protocol for two parties to flip a fair coin. Trusted party T publishes her public key pk A chooses a random bit $...
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Decrypted RSA 64 bit encryption using modulus and private exponent. Got gobbledygook [Verify] [closed]

As part of an experiment, I was given a .enc RSA (encrypted) file that was most likely generated using openssl. I had the public key, I factored it, obtained the private exponent, and decrypted the ....
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Perfect Forward Secrecy with NaCl

I would like to use the NaCl cryptography library (or TweetNaCl), but I would very much like to have perfect forward secrecy for my application. From what I understand, all Bob needs to to decrypt a ...
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Compressing EC private keys

For reasonable security, EC private keys are typically 256-bits. Shorter EC private keys are not sufficiently secure. However, shorter symmetric keys (128-bits, for example) are comparably secure. I ...
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How do I get the equivalent strength of an ECC key?

I know how to calculate the comparable symmetric strength of an RSA modulus: calculate the running time for a field sieve. This is how NIST gives approximate symmetric sizes for asymmetric algos in ...
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Can one have an authentic, but repudiable, message without a previously shared secret?

Bob wants to send a message to Alice, such that Alice can be sure that the message came from Bob, but can't prove it to anyone else. If I understand right, this means that the same message could have ...
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Finding Private key in RSA with public key, cipher text and plain text

Is there a known 'non-brute force' method of determining a private key in an RSA system when all other parameters are know? I found the values of a ciphertext ($C$), its corresponding plaintext ($P$) ...
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How exactly does certificate based authentication work?

I know the concept of key generation, as well as encryption and decryption using public and private keys. When it comes to authenticating a user by a server, in general there are three types: ...
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Elliptic Curve Encryption Ciphertext Size

I'd like to know how much bigger is the ciphertext when encrypting a message using ECC encrytpion? ECIES (or ElGamal)
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Digital Signature using symmetric key cryptography

Generally digital signature is a public key cryptography concept.But it needs high overhead. So is there any publication or link available where 'digital signature using symmetric key' has been ...
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Why aren't there function based discrete log problems?

If discrete logarithm is based on the fact that finding $x$ for $a^x$ is difficult, wouldn't it be difficult to find $n$ such that if $f(x_1) = x_2$ then $f(x_2) = x_3 ... = x_n$ if $x$ is a generator ...
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Why does the PKCS1 RSA private key structure contain more than just exponent and modulus?

The ASN.1 spec for the PKCS1 RSA private key format is as follows: ...
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Simple digital signature example that one could compute without a computer?

I am working on a document to explain Bitcoin to students. But I am having a hard time translating the principle described in §2 of the Bitcoin whitepaper in layman's terms. There is a great question ...
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Hash-based asymmetrical encryption (not digital signature) schemes?

In the Wikipedia article or another article about post-quantum crypto there's a plenty of information about hash-based signatures. But where are hash-based ecryption with pubkey? But, over the long-...
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Why the symmetric key layer in PGP?

I've been familiarizing myself with the basics of PGP. If I understand correctly, PGP symmetrically encrypts the data of interest using a random single-use key, then encrypts the encrypted data and ...
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Why is a 2048-bit public RSA key represented by 540 hexadecimal characters in X.509 Certificates?

In the public certificate, an RSA public key specified as 2048 bits long is represented by 540 hexadecimal characters. Converted to base-2, this yields 2160 bits, 112 more than the stated 2048.
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Calculating private keys in the RSA cryptosystem

The number $43733$ was chosen as base for an implementation of the RSA system. $M=19985$ is the message, that was encrypted with help of a public key $K=53$. What is the plaintext text? What is the ...
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Is there an authenticated encryption scheme where the recipient can attribute the message to a single sender?

With a standard authenticated encryption scheme (or MAC), Alice and Bob share a symmetric key. When Alice sends something to Bob, Bob can check that it is authentic. At that point, Bob can deduce ...
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Can an RSA public key be generated without ever knowing the factors? [duplicate]

Context: http://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/2013/12/a-few-more-notes-on-nsa-random-number.html Assume I wanted to use RSA as the basis for a hash function or DRBG. Also assume that my construct ...
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Proof that padded RSA is CPA-secure

I'm referring to page 383 of J. Katz and Y. Lindell's Introduction to Modern Cryptography. The book presents a padded RSA: ${\bf Key Generation:}$ same as Textbook RSA (given security parameter $1^...
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Is my identity exposed when publishing my public key or encrypting with PGP?

Let's say I create my PGP keys with my appropriate name and email address. Will these personal information be exposed if I publish my public key? When I encrypt a message for sending it to my ...
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Public key crypto instead of hashing passwords in a database

Suppose I want to keep a client's password database secure (not in plaintext), while still having access to the plaintext password. Now I generates a public/private keypair. Then I send the public ...
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Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange with Authentication: Man-in-the-Middle query

I have been reading up on MiTM attacks, and the prevention of them using public key certificates. Recently I learnt about Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange with Authentication, and how it uses signed ...
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Sharing a secret key between many users

I would like to know if there is any security issue in sharing a secret key (of an asymmetric cryptography) between several users. I know that this secret key is no longer "secret", so it's no longer ...
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Is it possible to combine digital signature to provide message addition?

Let's assume we are using the textbook RSA where $Sig(x)=x^d$. Alice has public key $(e,N)$, and private key $(d,p,q)$. Now, if Alice sends $Sig(5)$ and $Sig(10)$ to Bob, where $5$ and $10$ is just ...
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Attack for RSA 1024 bit with Low Public Exponent

I am facing a challenge at university. Our teacher give us the challenge to try to break an RSA 1024 bit. We have public modulus N and public exponent e (0x03), we don't know the padding. We have a ...