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Questions tagged [public-key]

An asymmetric cipher is an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. This way the encrypting key need not be kept secret to ensure a private communication. Similarly in public key authentication, the verification key can be public and the signing key private.

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Single Party Encryption, Multi Party Decryption

I am looking for an adequate protocol for public key decryption, which would allow $n$ parties to jointly decrypt a cipher text. The usage scenario for such a protocol would be a mixnet that wouldn't ...
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Given enough RSA ciphertext, is it possible to determine which key was used?

Given enough RSA ciphertext, is it possible to determine which public key was used to generate the ciphertext? Presume an unknown public key that was used to generate RSA ciphertext, and we have ...
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Are there comprehensive alternatives to RSA?

If we wished to, is there a comprehensive alternative to RSA? I say comprehensive as I wonder if there is one which does both encryption and digital signature like RSA? If not, simply what ...
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Is this a correctly formatted PGP session key packet?

RFC 4880 may be full of information, but it can be incredibly vague at times, so im looking for someone who actually knows the answer to this. Given this public key: ...
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947 views

Key Check Value standard practice for asymmetric cryptography?

I'm looking for a standard, or sound industry practice, for the equivalent of a Key Check Value, applied to the private key of a public key algorithm, like ECDSA. For DES or 3DES keys, practice (as ...
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349 views

Does any public key crypto support and/or allow a 3rd party “control-key”?

My question is based on the following situation: Bob and Alice work for a company that expects them to exchange data encrypted. They could do so using regular public-key cryptography, but Joe (their ...
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511 views

RSA 1024 bit forge a new matching signature from a chosen message

I have an RSA signature scheme with 1024-bit key where I know the following: Public modulus $N$ Public exponent $e=3$ A lot of signatures Summary: To compute a signature, an MD5 hash is calculated ...
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315 views

Is there an asymmetric encryption algorithm where the public key cannot be derived from the private key

Is there an encryption algorithm that will produce a public key and a private key such that the public key cannot be generated using the private key. For example, if the private key is compromised ...
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ECDSA private key format

Here's a sample ECDSA private key (I don't use it for anything): ...
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217 views

Reason for difference in assumptions for practical private-key and public-key crypto

Theoretical cryptography tells us that everything in the world of private-key cryptography (CCA-secure symmetric encryption, message authentication codes, etc.) can be built from one-way functions and ...
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Is there a problem in a PK cryptosystem if the plaintexts are very small compared to the ciphertexts?

I'm wondering, suppose we have a public key cryptosystem $P = (pk,sk)$ such that $$pk: \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}^{n^2},$$ that is, the ciphertexts are $n$ times longer than the plaintexts (here, $n$ is ...
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What differences between Menezes–Vanstone ECC and ElGamal ECC?

After researching ECC encryption, I found that we can use ElGamal cryptosystem with elliptic curve and can we use Menezes-Vanstone cryptosystem with elliptic curve. What is the essential difference ...
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UKS attack on KEA protocol

I'm trying to understand the UKS attack on KEA protocol. This is described in this paper: Security Analysis of KEA Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol So to summarize: KEA protocol: UKS attack on ...
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Do I need to use a MAC with asymmetric encryption?

The internet has drilled into me that when I delivery any symmetrically encrypted data, I should also deliver a MAC to authenticate it before any decryption occurs. Do I also need to do this if I use ...
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193 views

What public-key encryption protocol can use the same key pair as ECDSA?

Assume we wanted to use the same ECDSA public/private key pair (drawn for standard ECC parameters, perhaps P-256) for both its intended use (public-key signature), and for public-key encryption; this ...
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948 views

Feasibility of finding public key when private key is known

We all know that in a public key cryptosystem, given a public key it is extremely hard to compute private key from it. Is it the same case in reverse? Given a private key, how easy is it to compute ...
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RSA Key generation: How is multiplicative inverse computed?

As per Wikipedia, RSA keygen goes like this: Choose two distinct prime numbers p and q. Compute $n = pq$. Compute $\varphi(n) = (p − 1)(q − 1)$. Choose an integer e such that $1 < e < \varphi(n)...
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442 views

Does rsa-oaep provide or not plaintext integrity in addition to confidentiality?

My own understanding (possibly wrong of course) of RSA-OAEP encryption scheme is that it provides plaintext integrity (in addition to confidentiality) due to MGF function which for encryption ...
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12k views

PGP public RSA key format

I have been trying to use Go (I could post the code, but I think I posted enough already...) to generate a PGP RSA key. However every time I try to encrypt something with it, something fails. However, ...
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Why does FIPS 186-4 require specific sizes for keys?

In FIPS 186-4, page 32, about FFC crypto it is required that the length of $p$ will be exactly 1024 bit and the length of $q$ will be exactly 160 bit. Why is the requirement not stated in terms of ...
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357 views

RSA Timing Attack and Prevention through blinding

I am kind of confused regarding timing attacks on RSA. I do understand that the attack exploits the fact that the modular exponentiation (square and multiply) has key dependent branching. That is, if ...
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672 views

implications of SSH server key compromission when authenticating users against a public key

Friday we had a disagreement with a colleague of mine about the implications of SSH server key compromission The question was stated as this : What could a hacker do while provided with the SSH ...
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Quadratic residue problem on composite integers

Its believed that the quadratic residue modulo $n=p·q$ for large primes $p$ and $q$ is intractable, which forms the basis of some cryptosystems. However, it is solvable if the factors of $n$ are know,...
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using Post-quantum asymmetric ciphers instead of RSA

We can't trust RSA to encrypt our Emails so what is best post-quantum cryptography system as alternative for RSA which provide good security and don't be breakable? because McEliece cryptosystem looks ...
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330 views

Determining message given cipher-text and public key [duplicate]

Consider the following scenario: Suppose A and B have set up their RSA public keys, namely $(e_a, n)$ and $(e_b, n)$, where the n-value is the same. Also, it happens that the $\gcd (e_a, e_b) = ...
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Secure multi-party computation for digital signature

Is there any practical algorithm that will allow to use public key cryptography (RSA or ECC) in the following way There are N parties. Up to M are malicious adversaries (were trusted, but got taken ...
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Maximum length in bits of the product n=pq

If p and q are two 1024-bit prime numbers, would the maximum length in bits of product $n=pq$ be ${1024}^2$ or $2^{1024}$? I think it is ${1048576}={1024}^2$? Also, would the least significant bit ...
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How does the sender obtain the receiver's public key?

Cryptography process includes encryption and decryption process. In public key cryptography public key of receiver is being used for encryption. I want to know how public key of receiver is sent to ...
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729 views

How do we guarantee plaintext is coprime in RSA?

The specifications for RSA state: $P^{\phi(N)} \equiv 1 ~mod~N$ if and only if $P$ and $N$ are coprime. Here $P$ is the plaintext and $N$ is the product of two suitable primes $x_1, x_2$. My question ...
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What is the correct value for “certainty” in RSA key pair generation?

I'm creating an RSA key pair in Bouncy Castle and need to specify an int value for certainty. This Stack Overflow answer says it is a relative test for how prime the values are. There is another ...
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Verification of identity by certification authority

I have question about how a user's identity is verified by a Certification Authority. As I understand it, the process works as follows: User generates his private key and (with the help of private ...
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1answer
77 views

Can private key be specified on key pair creation?

Without regards to any specific implementation of asymmetric cryptography, I am wondering if it is feasible to come up with a value of private key I want to use, and calculate the corresponding public ...
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Why is encryption slower than decryption in elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)?

While performing encryption using public key and decryption using the private key, I am always finding that encryption takes more time than decryption in elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). It's the ...
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NTRU key size (confused)

I'm evaluating the performance of NTRU; and I got confused. the key size is said to be smaller than RSA but larger than ECC. Using both the reference implementation when I choose APR2011_439 setting ...
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1answer
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Need help understanding this exercise's solution

We were given this exercise, which asks us to identify the types of keys used on this diagram: The solution was Kxa -> A's private key Kya -> A's public key KxB -> B's private key My question is, ...
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If RSA Signature is not Decryption, why is it not advisable to use same keys for enc/dec and sig/ver? [duplicate]

If RSA Signature is not Decryption, why is it not advisable to use same keys for enc/dec and sig/ver? What is the proof where you may be exposing your private key when you use the same one for ...
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Negotiate a secure connection without certificates?

I would like to have a simple experience for a user for setting up a secure connection between two computers against a MITM attack. Something like the following: A number (possibly base64) appears ...
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1k views

Attack RSA knowing the public key and brute forcing all possible message

Alice want to send a message $m$ to Bob, and encrypt it with Bob public key $K_B$. $A \rightarrow B : \{m\}K_B$ Lets assume I have intercepted $\{m\}K_B$, I know $K_B$ and I know that $m \in D$ (...
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664 views

Message exchange with textbook RSA

I am working on this exercise but can't work out the answer to the question b. I have solved the question (a) by decrypting the ciphertext $C = 2$ using the formula: $$ M = C^d \bmod n = 2^{17} \bmod ...
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Two untrusted party want to exchange data: how to ensure each one gets the data it needs? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Two untrusted party want to exchange data: how to insure each one gets the data it needs? I am trying to come up with what could maybe be a novel algorithm for an application ...
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2answers
151 views

Oblivious Decryption: Decrypting with a private key, without knowing the message

I’m trying to devise a protocol, complimentary to a private-set-intersection, involving three parties, namely Alice, Bob and Charlie. Alice has a public and a private key. And receives website logs ...
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1answer
93 views

Is it Possible to Generate a Duplicate DH Session Key from 2 Pairs of DH Keys?

This might sound pointless at first, but I want to know if it's computationally feasible to generate the same resulting session key in 2 different DH key exchanges. The purpose would be for a man-in-...
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1answer
884 views

How to generate 1024-bit RSA key

I have generated a prime number with a 1024-bit size. Now, when I create an RSA key - how many bits does the key have?
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Any algorithm with a pair of master keys and multiple pairs of subkey for a secure key escrow?

Note: This question looks like my other question — Any algorithm with a master key for decrypting private key encrypted messages? — which is perfectly answered by @real-or-random, but this one is ...
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1answer
641 views

Does RSA-OEAP have integrity and authenticity properties?

RSA-OAEP is IND-CCA2 secure (indistinguishable under an adaptive chosen ciphertext attack). Does it also have the INT-CTXT (integrity of ciphertext) and INT-PTXT (integrity of plaintext) properties? ...
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1answer
313 views

What are the different use cases between an HMAC and digital signature? [duplicate]

I understand that both an HMAC and digital signature are used to check the integrity and authenticity of a message. Further, I understand that a digital signature is non-repudiatible. What I do not ...
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1answer
319 views

Schnorr Pubkey Recovery

As per How does recovering the public key from an ECDSA signature work? , it's possible to recover public keys from ECDSA signatures. Is this possible for EC-Schnorr signatures as well? I'm looking ...
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1answer
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When is public-key crypto used / when is symmetric crypto used?

I read in the book "Cryptography & Network Security" that it has almost been universally accepted that public-key cryptography is restricted to only being used for key management (Does this mean ...
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1answer
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Confused about final subtraction of modulus in Montgomery Multiplication, during modular exponentiation

I'm confused about how one might supposedly bypass the final subtraction of the modulus in radix-2 montgomery modular multiplication, when used in a modular exponentiation algorithm. The following two ...
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1answer
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Will publishing two or more public keys of the same RSA private key cause a security risk?

I want to make an end-to-end messaging platform where everyone is identified with a unique random private key. Everyone uses other peers' public keys to identify and send encrypted messages and verify ...