Questions tagged [public-key]

An asymmetric cipher is an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. This way the encrypting key need not be kept secret to ensure a private communication. Similarly in public key authentication, the verification key can be public and the signing key private.

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Can an RSA public key be generated without ever knowing the factors? [duplicate]

Context: http://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/2013/12/a-few-more-notes-on-nsa-random-number.html Assume I wanted to use RSA as the basis for a hash function or DRBG. Also assume that my construct ...
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Question about why RSA is hard to attack

I think I understand why RSA is hard to attack but I'd like to get clarification if I actually do. Assume there are two people, Alice and Bob, who are attempting to communicate privately but that we ...
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How are trapdoor functions developed/found and where can I find existing ones?

Trapdoor functions are a fundamental part of public key cryptography. An example of the most common trapdoor is Prime Factorization, used in cryptosystems such as RSA How are these trapdoor ...
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How can I prevent a message replay with RSA?

I am using RSA to encrypt some data but I would like to eliminate the possibility of message replay. By message replay I mean sending a valid message multiple times to the original recipient. It is ...
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How exactly does certificate based authentication work?

I know the concept of key generation, as well as encryption and decryption using public and private keys. When it comes to authenticating a user by a server, in general there are three types: ...
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What is the difference between RCCA and CCA2?

Well, I know it's easy to tell CCA1 from CCA2, but I failed to find the difference between RCCA and CCA2. What is the difference?
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Private and Public Keys

I have a very basic understanding of encryption and the encapsulation process, but for the life of me I can't grasp how public keys and private keys work, how they're made, and how they're exchanged. ...
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Public-Key Deterministic Encryption : Why does not provide perfect security?

I've got a question about an assignment . The question is "Why a Public-Key Deterministic Encryption Algorithm does not provide perfect security ?" . I suppose it means according to Shannon . Any ...
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Proof that padded RSA is CPA-secure

I'm referring to page 383 of J. Katz and Y. Lindell's Introduction to Modern Cryptography. The book presents a padded RSA: ${\bf Key Generation:}$ same as Textbook RSA (given security parameter $1^...
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Client and server using same SSL certificate - any issues?

I'm working on software where multiple components will communicate with each other using SSL. There would be one central component acting as a server, which would also require the clients to present ...
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Get RSA PlainText without Knowing Private Key

If I have an algorithm,RSA-Crack(), that, for a given RSA public key (n,e), is able to decrypt 1% of the messages encrypted with that key (without knowledge of the corresponding private key).Can there ...
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Has any alternative to RSA and Discrete Logarithm been standardized for deployment?

Suppose RSA and Discrete Logarithm over any group (including elliptic curves) gets broken what other schemes we have for DEPLOYMENT IMMEDIATELY do we have to rescue the internet from collapse? So ...
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Can an U2F public/private key-pair for signatures be used for encryption?

I understand that this might be more a process question: Given a U2F device which supports signatures using ECDSA public/private key pairs, is there a way to use the signing function of such a device ...
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How should I implement a secure recovery of encryption?

I want to create a system to host as securely as possible encrypted data in a way that not even the system can know the content of the data, but that it could be recovered. I would like to know how ...
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How to decrypt a '.enc' file that has been encrypted with RSA using a public key? [closed]

While solving a CTF challenge online, I came across a situation where I needed to decrypt a '.enc' file that has been encrypted using someone's public key. The ...
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Why is recipient hashed in this Sign/Encrypt/Sign proposal?

Own research In my journey into trying to understand PGP, and public key singing and encryption as a whole, I came across this answer on CE. It is an answer to a question with the title: Should we ...
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Is it possible to reduce the size of an RSA key?

The details about what an RSA key is made up of are explained succinctly here. Is it possible to reduce the amount of data that's usually packaged with the (private) key and then derive it later?
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Why is the private key generated first in public key crypto?

I'm still new to public key crypto. I'm trying to understand how it is that the private key is generated first in public key crypto? I would have expected the private and public key to be generated at ...
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Can we say that if $P=NP$ there is no CPA secure public key encryption?

I've learned that public key encryption is based on the problem of Discrete Log (as regard to group theory) which believed to be hard. But, can we say that it doesn't matter on which problem our ...
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Raw curve25519 public key points

I'm trying to understand curve25519, and ECC public points. I'm playing with Minisign, to better understand the fundamentals of ECC. Minisign uses curve25519 and outputs public keys as base64 ...
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Do I really need to use the same private/public key pair in RSA?

So I'm making an Android application, I need my application to be only able to scan my own generated QR codes, and I want to make sure that nobody else can generate fake ones. The data isn't ...
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Alternative to NSA encryption algorithm

I am looking for a strong alternative to elliptic curve cryptography. It should be something that could face quantum computing attacks, but nothing created by the NSA. I heard about isogeny key ...
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Why is Diffie Hellman used alongside public keys?

I just read this post here: Why do we need asymmetric algorithms for key exchange? that asserts that in public key cryptography when asymmetric keys are used to secure communications, for parties to ...
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Is it possible to create an open-source SecurID?

As far as I understand it, the hardware key-fob two-factor systems such as RSA SecurID depend on secret algorithms, and employ tamper-resistant hardware to prevent reverse engineering. Is there some ...
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RSA using 2 as a public exponent

I'm failing to see why 2 can never be used and what weaknesses would be associated with doing so. There's a similar question asking why it has to be in the form of $2^n$+1 but why not $2^n$
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public key cryptography and digital signature

I read the following from Understanding Public Key Cryptography on Microsoft TechNet: Using a private key to establish identity shows that the full encryption and decryption operation was ...
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RSA performance

I was wondering what is the performance bottleneck in RSA algorithm? Is it the size of message, calculating the modular inverse, exponentiation? Say I have a fixed value of n to encrypt and decrypt ...
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Difficulty of breaking RSA for a given key size

Is it true that breaking a 1024-bit RSA key is as difficult as breaking a 128 bit symmetric key (e.g. AES)? I know that breaking a RSA key is equivalent to factoring the modulus $N$. To factor it, you ...
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Public key crypto without modular arithmetic?

This comment from Reddit math, in response to a statement about how people can communicate secrets to each other with a third party listening, has a very small, simple example of public key ...
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Is there a public key semantically secure cryptosystem for which one can prove in zero knowledge the equivalence of two plaintexts?

If Alice encrypts two messages $a$ and $b$, such that $x=E(a)$, $y=E(b)$. Can Alice prove (without revealing $a$, $b$ or the private key) that $a = b$? Obviously the proof must not be too long and it ...
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Can we use elliptic curve cryptography in wireless sensors?

Can we use elliptic curve cryptography in wireless sensors? If so, how do you map points to message characters?
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Bleichenbacher attack, binary search, formula for $s_i$

Reading an excellent article explaining Bleichenbacher attack I came across the following statements under the formula for $s_i$: if we pick $r ≥ 2(bs_{i-1} - 2B) / n$, we obtain $(2B + 2(bs_{...
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ECDSA key recovery - floating point values

I'm currently attempting to recover an ECDSA key. I have $m$, $m'$ and signatures $(r, s)$, $(r', s')$, and I know that $k$ is constant, the curve is NIST P-192 and the hash function of the. As such,...
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Fast PKI for embedded device

We are creating a device with a small microcontroller (20 MHz CPU 16 KiB RAM). We need some way to securely send signed files to device (only signature, no encryption necessary). An external company ...
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Generation of strong primes

It seems that this is pretty difficult to find large (above 1024 bits) strong primes, or at least such primes $p$ where $(p-1)$ has a very large prime factor. Is there any information regarding the ...
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Can S/MIME be still considered secure?

Previoulsy I had asked this question at https://stackoverflow.com/questions/18235983/can-s-mime-be-still-considered-secure but I feel this forum is topic-wise the right place. Recently there has been ...
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Is a RSA-signature of some identifying data a safe way to implement a license key?

I have this idea of implementing a license key: After the user downloads the program, he connects to a website and sends his Windows product ID. The website, then, sends this back to him with a ...
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When is an asymmetric scheme considered broken?

Does the following quote imply that valid encrypted data can be created and decrypted by someone other than the owner of a private key: An asymmetric encryption scheme is considered to be broken if ...
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Public key crypto instead of hashing passwords in a database

Suppose I want to keep a client's password database secure (not in plaintext), while still having access to the plaintext password. Now I generates a public/private keypair. Then I send the public ...
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File format of an $2048$ bits RSA public key

From here, there are $14$ bytes specifying the file format of the key. I am still quite confused about the format bytes. For example, the following public key 30 82 01 0a 02 82 01 01 00 8e a3 d1 c7 ...
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Why does RSA give better security on longer messages?

I am trying to understand the notion of RSA security. Choosing a public exponent where $e = 3$ facilitates the calculations, considering that it is secure if the plaintext or message is long. If the ...
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Is there any knapsack-based cryptosystem that has not yet been broken?

I co-authored and implemented SRVB, an asymmetric cryptosystem, only to eventually realize that it is strongly related to Merkel-Hellman cryptosystem, which has been broken. In order to help me ...
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How to select $g$ in Paillier Cryptosystem

For my cryptography class project in university I have selected Paillier Cryptosystem as a course project http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paillier_cryptosystem#...
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Derive a secret from an RSA private key

What I want to do is deterministically derive a secure key from an RSA private key, such that the RSA private key cannot be derived from the secure key. The first approach that came to mind was ...
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Is a transposition cipher categorized as asymmetric algorithm?

Consider a simplest transposition cipher, such as one with block size 8 and encryption key 43725681, the decryption key will be 84215637. As the keys are different, may I say a transposition cipher is ...
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Why does choosing the first coprime e greater than half of φ(n) result in the same d (private exponent)

While reading on RSA's algorithm, I attempted a simplified implementation and noticed the following: When choosing the public exponent $e$, if the value chosen is the first coprime after $φ(n)/2$ ...
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Is there a partially homomorphic quantum secure public key cryptosystem with IND-CCA1 security?

I recentely asked "IND-CCA1 RSA padding?" about whether there is a IND-CCA1 secure variant of RSA. The original version of the question also allowed usage of ECC which would allow usage of ElGamal, ...
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RSA example-calculation: Public Key = Private Key (e = d)

I am a bit confused. I just calculated manually the single steps of RSA for an implementation with small numbers and suddenly $d$ was equal $e$. Please help me understand what I am doing wrong. Here’...
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Is there a public-key cryptography method that enables public keys to be much smaller than private keys?

Does a public key cryptography method that enables the public key to be orders of magnitude smaller than the private key exist?
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Does any public key crypto support and/or allow a 3rd party “control-key”?

My question is based on the following situation: Bob and Alice work for a company that expects them to exchange data encrypted. They could do so using regular public-key cryptography, but Joe (their ...