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Questions tagged [randomness]

Usage of randomness (i.e. non-predictable data, usually in the form of bits or numbers) for cryptographic purposes.

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55 views

ECDSA signature of a random 32 byte number vs. the hash of the number

I'm working on an application that involves signing a 32 byte random number generated by the OS. Assuming the RNG works as intended, is it safe to sign the random number itself rather than a hash of ...
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1answer
35 views

Origin of the Chi-Squared test statistic for serial test (two bit test)

On page 181 of Handbook of Applied Cryptography Chapter Five, it states the following: The purpose of this test is to determine whether the number of occurrences of 00, 01, 10, and 11 as ...
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81 views

Where can I find some thought-provoking questions on the fundamentals of Cryptography? [closed]

The question might sound broad, allow me to explain. Cryptography is a diverse domain. I have been in Crypto research since last four years. Recently, one of my colleague got interviewed by an IT ...
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37 views

Prove that a given signature scheme is secure under random message attacks

This is a follow up to my previous question. Consider the following signature scheme: $\operatorname{KeyGen} (1^k$) : On input of a security parameter $k$, choose a symmetric bilinear group with $...
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1answer
44 views

Random letter swap soloution

I am working on a way to decipher some text generated by a small piece of code (see below). This piece of code swaps letters in the sentence at random and was wondering if there where any techniques ...
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1answer
84 views

Security of (2,2) Shamir's visual secret sharing scheme : How are the 2 shares random?

From the Visual Cryptography by Shamir and Noar. Let us take the pixel expansion as 2. Therefore, each pixel will be represented by 2 pixels (also called as subpixels) in a share. Since this is a (2,...
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1answer
171 views

How did I get a nonuniform distribution of UUID4s across MD5 space?

We have a system that processes data. Each entity has an ID that is generated using uuid4() in Python. Later, that ID is used as a partition key for AWS Kinesis. ...
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1answer
56 views

Brute forcing/hacking Secure passphrases - difficulty for random strings vs real words

I was wondering about this topic of brute forcing passwords,or ANY other way to deriving them - and asking myself whats more secure (relatively): A Password which includes A) 30 digits length- a ...
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3answers
150 views

Low entropy - how does it compromise the crypto

One of the often pointed out mistake in dealing with crypto is not having enough entropy in the system. Without enough entropy the random numbers generated are not random enough. But what I am not ...
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2answers
188 views

NIST randomness test p values

I have a binary sequence of length $2^{20}$. I am using the NIST statistical test, assess. What should be taken for ./assess and ...
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1answer
138 views

Is there any bias whatsoever in modern hash function outputs?

We know that the output bias of a randomness extractor is $ \epsilon = 2^{-(sn-k)/2} $ from What is the relationship between entropy conditioning and final output bias in a TRNG?. The following is a ...
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1answer
122 views

Golomb's Randomness postulates

In Handbook of applied cryptography, Golomb's randomness postulates are given: Let $s$ be a periodic sequence of period $N$. Golomb’s randomness postulates are the following. R1: In the cycle $s_N$ ...
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54 views

Method for generating random number(s) [closed]

I was reading about random numbers and their usage in security. I'd like to verify with more experienced people how good this method of generating random numbers will be. Human beings are very hard ...
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2answers
2k views

Example of cryptography random number

I read that random numbers are being used in cryptography and security. I think I have idea how to truly generate true random, non-deterministic number. But before continuing further I'd like to ask ...
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1answer
66 views

How to determine the fastest OpenSSL cryptographic algorithm

This question does have to do with cryptography, but not necessarily with encrypting meaningful data. This is my first post here, so if I'm going about this question incorrectly please let me know. ...
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3answers
65 views

Impact of a non-uniform distribution in a secret sharing scheme

When it comes to the secret sharing schemes, it seems that the random numbers need to be drawn uniformly. Is there any difference between the random numbers from uniform distribution and the non-...
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4answers
4k views

Using Tweets as a Random seed

I would like to start by saying I know nothing about Cryptography and was reading up on how to choose a random seed and this link is something that I found. What I basically understood that the seed ...
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5answers
227 views

Is there a definition of the pseudo-random sequences like PRG or PRF in cryptography?

I have learned the definition of PRGs and PRFs. As I know the meaning of pseudoreandomness. I think that the pseudo-random sequence and the truly random sequence are indistinguishable. I did not find ...
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1answer
112 views

Implementing randomness extractors

A randomness extractor is a function that takes an input sampled from high entropy distribution and outputs a value that is close to uniform distribution. It is slightly different from a PRG. PRGs ...
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3answers
3k views

Cryptography's random number problem?

Sophie Chen at Wired Magazine; quantum mechanics could solve cryptography's random number problem Such machine already exist, but it's too huge and not so fast in order to use it all the time. ...
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2answers
164 views

Interpretation of (NIST) Non Overlapping Template Matching Test

Regarding the Non-Overlapping Template test, this test normally gives us a bunch of p-values (148 values). I would like to ask that how do we interpret those values into a single p-value for ...
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2answers
180 views

Does AES encrypt /dev/null and feed output to AES again increase entropy of the ciphertext?

I just thought about what would change if would pipe the output of openssl enc -aes-256-ctr -pass pass:"$(dd if=/dev/urandom bs=128 count=1 2>/dev/null | base64)" -nosalt < /dev/zero | pv -pterb ...
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1answer
49 views

Privacy of randomness using extractors and PRGs

The Wikipedia article on randomness extraction states that they are different to pseudo random number generators but the distinction is very hazy. Both seem to take in some input quasi-randomness and ...
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3answers
134 views

Is it correct to concatenate (pseudo-)random byte values before testing them with the NIST suite or tools like dieharder?

Let's assume I have thousands of (pseudo-)random 4-byte values. The values are 4 byte random values which a blackbox device gave me. I got these values by requesting them. In between others might have ...
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1answer
77 views

Proving von Neumann extractor correct

Von Neumann extractor works as follows: Suppose $C$ is a biased coin, with $p = P[C = 1] > P[C = 0]$ and let $b_1b_2\ldots$ be sequence of results by independent coin tosses. For $i \ge 0$ one ...
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1answer
62 views

Does this description of verifiable random functions seem accurate?

I've been thinking about verifiable random functions recently due to my interest in sortition (random selection of political officials). I wrote up this little paragraph below, and I'm wondering: Does ...
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2k views

What is the difference between TRNG and CSPRNG?

I understand the output of a TRNG is almost impossible to reproduce, such a flipping a coin 100 times to produce a 100-bit sequence. However, it is also my understanding that a CSPRNG produces an ...
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82 views

Use of randomness in an Elgamal like encryption

Suppose I have the following encryption scheme: for a message $m\in\mathbb{F}_p^*$, I generate the ciphertext = $(g^r,f^mh^r)$ where $g$ is the generator of a cyclic group $G$ of unknown order $n$ and ...
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1answer
175 views

Using IPv6 as seed + time almost as good as TRNG? [closed]

I just figured out a way to create a RNG that may be almost as good as TRNG (true random number generator) and need some input to confirm/clarify. What if I use the IPv6 address of a visitor as a ...
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1answer
132 views

Problems understanding the applications of pseudo random number generators

I am trying to explore different methods used to generate pseudo-random numbers for my project in maths and I would be very grateful for some help or references to valuable sources as it is very hard ...
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1answer
95 views

Some considerations about PRNGs

Recently I read about pseudorandom generators and I have some observations: My conlusion is a such that a secure implementation of a PRNG had to be blocking or returning an error code when it is too ...
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1answer
86 views

Pseudo-random generators and pitfalls

I've read the Chapter "Randomness" from the Serious Cryptography book and it raised some questions. Namely: It is written that Mersenne Twister is proved to be cryptographically irreliable. And that ...
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5answers
2k views

How many hex digits do I need to compare when manually checking hash functions?

I sometimes run sha256sum on large files after transferring them from one place to another, and will just skim the hash output to verify it's correct. But, I usually just look at the first/last 5 or 6 ...
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1answer
78 views

adaptation of NIST sp800-22 for short sequences

I would like to ask about the NIST test suite for randomness evaluation. The test suite consists of 15 subtests which evaluate the particular property of the sequence. In fact, each test has an ...
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1answer
84 views

Sequence test for an image cipher

I am reading a paper on security analysis of a cipher image using the paper at the following URL: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8306512&tag=1 It indicates some ...
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1answer
111 views

repeatedly hashing result and using reverse sequence as RNG secure?

I want to have a source of randomness for which: no one but me can predict the next number in the sequence. I know the entire sequence in advance, but I have no way of manipulating it once the first ...
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1answer
94 views

LFS Kolmogorov Randomness

Consider following LFS register (where + denotes addition modulo 2) I have found the output sequence as 1,0,1,1. I know that The K(s) of a string s is defined as the length of the shortest computer ...
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1answer
76 views

Expected Linear Complexity of a sequence

Let (s) be a sequence of length n. What are the expected linear complexities of (s) and $(s)^{\infty}$ (meaning that the periodic version of s)? I have no idea of the answer to this question? What ...
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1answer
191 views

Dieharder input data format. Do I need new line at the end?

I am testing my sequence for randomness using Dieharder with a command like dieharder -a -g 202 -f in.txt >>result.txt my in.txt looks like ...
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1answer
96 views

How long random value is required in random masking method?

I heard that random masking method requires a random number whose length is as long as a message to be sent, but I’m not sure that. So, I'd like to ask about that. 1. Boolean masking : $ x_i \oplus ...
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1answer
112 views

Synthetic Jitter to Combat Timing Attacks

We are working on some tooling. It has a networking kernel. We would like to think that jitter built into the kernel would help with timing attacks? Is this true?
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56 views

What is fixed randomness and unfixed randomness?

I have found these notions recently in an article. What is fixed randomness ? What is unfixed randomness ? Link of the article : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.431.9034&...
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21 views

Randomized response with more than 2 options

It is well-known that the binary randomized response mechanism is differentially private, with $\varepsilon=ln(3)$ if each person answers truthfully with probability $0.5$, and uniformly randomly ...
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2answers
106 views

uuidgen has consistent 13th digit and it's 4

I ran uuidgen 10k times and noticed that the 13th digit is always 4. Why is that?
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1answer
82 views

In a specific Paillier implementation, why is r prime?

I have a question about an implementation of the Paillier cryptosystem. In the description of Paillier above, encryption of a plaintext message $m$ on $\mathbb {Z}_{n^{2}}$, $0\leq m<n$, proceeds ...
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2answers
239 views

What is special about an entropy count (RNDGETENTCNT) of 160 for libsodium initialization?

(Moved from StackOverflow) In the Usage documentation for libsodium, before calling the initialization function sodium_init, they suggest you check the entropy ...
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0answers
80 views

How Are Linear Congruential Generator Multipliers Chosen?

There are several numbers that keep coming up when looking at certain random number generators, for example 6364136223846793005 is used in newer pcg-family algorithms and seems to draw it from ...
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1answer
99 views

When will a function $f$ be a truly random function?

I'm familiar with a definition of a truly random function: $f$ is a truly random function if it was selected uniformly from the set of all the functions $f(x):\{0,1\}^{n} \to \{0,1\}^{n}$ But I'm ...
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3answers
133 views

Mechanism to get 10 pseudo-random positive numbers up to maximum from a seed (32-byte hash)?

I have learned new crypto words, so I rewrote the question: I have quite random 32-byte hash which I want to use as a seed for generation of 10 pseudo-random positive numbers up to some maximum ...
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1answer
208 views

Discrete Gaussian Sampling role in Lattice-Based Crypto?

I'm reading up on how post-quantum cryptography works, and stumbled upon the notion of discrete Gaussian sampling. However, I can't understand where it fits in the greater picture - currently it feels ...