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Questions tagged [rc4]

RC4 is a fast and simple stream cipher used correctly in SSL and incorrectly in WEP.

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Understanding a security error with RC4 using the same key to encrypt on the client/server sides

This apparently was a bug with WhatsApp a while ago. I am endeavoring to recreate it and understand it. The bug had to do with the fact that the same key was used to encrypt plaintext on both the ...
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2answers
140 views

Arbitrary key size in RC4

Is it possible using RC4 that for e.g. a 17-bit long plaintext i can get a 17-bit long ciphertext? From my understanding, for this example i need a 17-bit long key to do the XOR operation for ...
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2answers
949 views

Is RC4 secure with a single-use 32-byte random key prefix and 3072 prefix bytes discarded?

Are there any known attacks against RC4 if used with a single-use, random-generated 32-byte key, and 3072 random bytes prepended to the plaintext? Are there any reasons why we should consider such a ...
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1answer
126 views

Why does Blowfish and RC4 (Arc4) make same encrypted strings [closed]

I made a program on android. I used a password key of "PBKDF2WithHmacSHA1" for both of them as a key. The program i made was using Android java Cipher library. When I encrypt and decrypt with blowfish ...
2
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1answer
172 views

RC4 - Key scheduling Algorithm

I'm trying to understand the KSA algorithm of RC4 which apparently scrambles the array which will later be used by the PRGA to generate the keystream. My question is, does the seed used by the KSA ...
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0answers
296 views

RC4: Find the complete plain text of a ciphertext when we know part of the plaintext

I need to decrypt an encrypted file with RC4 to answer to a Internet challenge. The file in question is a dump of a Teensy ROM and it is completely encrypted. Luckily, it looks like it's a standard ...
2
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1answer
2k views

What are the steps for decryption of RC4?

I've seen a lot of algorithms posted everywhere about how to encrypt using RC4. For example, this wiki article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RC4 explains the KSA and PRGA steps. After it generates ...
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1answer
81 views

Is RC4 cipher just xoring plaintext with a random sequence seeded by key?

After reading about RC4, it seems that it's nothing else than: the plaintext stream is just XOR'ed with a pseudo-random sequence that is initialized/seeded with the key Is there something else in ...
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1answer
127 views

How should k2 be produced in the RC4A stream cipher (A modification of RC4)?

RC4A is a slight modification of the simple RC4 stream cipher designed to strengthen it against a number of attacks. Here's that paper. However in the paper, the second key ...
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1answer
231 views

Is it possible for an element to be swapped with itself in RC4?

Given the design of RC4, is it possible or impossible for the values $i$ and $j$ to be equal to each other when $S[i]$ and $S[j]$ are swapped?
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2answers
278 views

Are Two Ciphers Better Than One? i.e. RC4 and AES

OK It's cringe time (or hopefully not) I know this is probably a variation of an old and dragged out question or so you may think but let me ask away and hopefully get some insight. Google a while ...
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1answer
109 views

Incremental RC4 algorithm?

I am currently analysing a client-server application which apparently uses RC4. I've got the secret key and nonce and I was very surprised about the approach they encrypted the packets. Since I am no ...
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0answers
92 views

Can a stream cipher with a big S-box create ASIC-resistance?

For a proof of work system a hash algorithm generates one pseudorandom index each round, in the same manner as RC4 and Spritz do. And it uses a bigger S-box, e.g. 2^20 numbers. The actual hash would ...
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3answers
1k views

Using a PRNG for a stream cipher instead of a dedicated algorithm

I am aware, that it is possible to build a stream cipher using some deterministic PRNG (like HASH_DRBG or CTR_DRBG) with good key material as the seed. What are the advantages of using a purpose ...
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1answer
6k views

RC4, finding key if we know plain text and ciphertext [duplicate]

Having plain text A , and cipher text B. Can we somehow retrieve key , when we want to decrypt text C which was also crypted with the same key?
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1answer
80 views

Is the RC4 KSA the same as an extractor?

I am studying the RC4 stream cipher, particularly when it used to be applied in the TLS/SSL protocol. Is it safe to say the KSA acts like an extractor taking in the shared secret key, k (between ...
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0answers
91 views

WEP: Why is the challenge string randomized?

In WEP, the 128-bit challenge string generated by an access point would allow for approximately 340 undecillion unique strings. Would it be problematic were a string to be reused? I suppose with $2^{...
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2answers
140 views

Stream Ciphers — Need clarification on their benefits in practice

Compared to a block cipher which encrypts 16 bytes at a time, stream ciphers can encrypt a byte at a time. I am curious about which applications would immensely benefit from the ability to encrypt a ...
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1answer
196 views

Does RC4 continue to be used anywhere?

RC4 in TLS is now broken. But the breaking seems to have a lot to do with how web transactions work in general. Is there any application outside of the web where RC4 is still used? I know that WEP is ...
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1answer
371 views

When is AES chosen instead of a stream Cipher (e.g., RC4) during an SSL connection?

During an SSL handshake, the browser sends a list of cipher suites to the server, from which the server selects one option. For data encryption, two of the several possibilities for the ciphers in ...
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0answers
48 views

Mitigating weaknesses in RC4 [duplicate]

I've been researching RC4 and implementing it, and I was wondering, from the perspective of a cryptographer (a real one, not a fake one like me), what could be added to the RC4 algorithm to improve on ...
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42 views

RC4 using a key without nonce's or IV's [duplicate]

I'm researching RC4 and I am trying to recreate a condition where RC4 is crackable. However I can't quite find the article/resource I need to find the weakness for an implementation like this (python):...
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1answer
480 views

How do attacks on WEP work?

There is an abundance of tools and tutorials on how to break WEP encryption. However, I fail to find a nice resource that gives a clear break-down of why the attacks are possible. For example, I know ...
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1answer
316 views

Two or more initialization vectors with the same key

I'm studying about WEP and I'm in doubt. It seems that because it uses a initialization vector of 24 bits, which is relatively short, is easy to determine which key was used to encrypt the data. But ...
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1answer
197 views

Does “double RC4” exhibit the same weaknesses as standard RC4?

I know that RC4 is weak. However, I don't know if two RC4 streams XORed with each other can be attacked in the same way that one can, especially if $n$ bytes are dropped. Assume keys and IVs are ...
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1answer
513 views

finding key from given ciphertext and open text

very new to crypto-stuff, i have to write a program in C that compute key(k) used in RC4 when I know open text(p) and ciphered(c) text so I have c_1=p_1 XOR k. How ...
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0answers
31 views

Are there known practical attacks on RC4-dropN? [duplicate]

RC4 is known to leak information about the first few bytes of the ciphertext due to keystream biases. However, are there known attacks on RC4-drop[N] where N is large enough, that leak information ...
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1answer
582 views

Can somebody help me understand RC4 Spritz? (Three Questions)

So ever since I first took a stab at understanding stream Ciphers, not one stood out more than RC4, because it's so fantastically simple. As most people reading this will know, with its fantastic ...
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2answers
274 views

Do we have anyway of knowing if avoiding self-permutation in RC4 makes it any stronger?

OK, so lots of questions get asked about RC4 but I want to make mine specific and hopefully answerable. RC4 Design as I'm sure anyone reading this knows, uses self permutation in stage 1 of the KSA. ...
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1answer
336 views

How much stronger is RC4 if it is keyed with an RSA private key?

My idea is to generate a RSA 2048 bit key and use RC4 with the private RSA key to encrypt a stream of data. RC4 is weak because RC4 keys are small, 256-bit. But when we use RC4 with private RSA 2048 ...
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1answer
384 views

Are there any long term RC4 bias based exploits?

The RC4 cipher possibly exhibits low level bias in it's long run PRNG keystream. I'm specifically excluding short term bias attacks which I'm defining as outputs < 1024 bytes. Are there any real ...
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2answers
453 views

Is the RC4 keystream random or not?

I have cause to use the PRNG half of RC4, but am seriously confused as to the randomness of its output. (Only the PRNG half.) On the one hand, there is a large body of literature finding ever ...
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1answer
89 views

Is it secure to use ciphertext feedback with RC4?

Consider the following modification of RC4 to give some "ciphertext feedback" ...
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0answers
34 views

How to calculate LOW(b) and HIGH(b) in spritz cryptography

I try to implement spritz cryptography like this paper . But I don't know how to calculate LOW(b) and HIGH(b). In paper page 7. ...
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1answer
2k views

Encryption Algorithms in Verilog code

Can we implement Encryption Algorithms like RC4,AES and DES in Verilog? if no what are the limitations?
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1answer
595 views

Safety of AES ECB when used with openssl_seal function

I'm trying to use PHP to encrypt files with a public key. I'm using the function openssl_seal that "encrypts data by using RC4 with a randomly generated secret key." RC4 is considered unsafe so the ...
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61 views

RC4 via nonlinear mixer — sound?

We implemented a rc4 (ARC4) variant for creating a cryptographic stream - question is: Is this sound? (I'll give an example for 32 bit variant, though 64 bit/larger is possible) Algorithm is as ...
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2answers
627 views

Question about the key in RC4

I am planning to develop a more secure version of the RC4 algorithm. Since I´m not an encryption expert, I´ld like you to help me find answers to the following questions: Does the value of the key ...
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1answer
898 views

Why does “2xAES-256” provide “99.99%” security strength whereas “1xAES-128” provides “40%”? [closed]

I recently was "directed" to FlipsCloud, a company selling security solutions (as far as I can tell). In particular I've investigated their page and found a page on their "encryption features". This ...
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1answer
6k views

RC4 , Is it possible to find the key if we know the plaintext and ciphertext?

Is it possible to find the key if we know the plaintext and ciphertext with RC4. How should I write the algorithm?
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2answers
358 views

What happens when a RC4 stream gets corrupted?

I want to encrypt a large file using RC4. But what happens if the encrypted file gets corrupted (bytes modified or lost)? Can I still decrypt the rest of the file correctly? If not, what is the best ...
2
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1answer
1k views

What is the period of a cipher?

For the following explanation of RC4: It is a variable key-size stream cipher with byte-oriented operations. The algorithm is based on the use of a random permutation. Analysis shows that the ...
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2answers
54 views

Combined message separation?

I have two ciphertexts, I suppose that its RC4 with reused key. I have XORed both ciphertexts and obtained message containing combined cleartexts. I suppose that the underlaying messages are written ...
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1answer
697 views

Is RC4 +XOR secure for small data?

I need to encrypt transmission between my device (with AVR processor) and base. I create packet data - it will be encrypted into string: ...
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1answer
854 views

what are the plaintext's for the RC4 stream cipher test vectors in RFC6229?

https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6229 has stuff like this: ...
2
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1answer
168 views

simulating rc4-256 with rc4-128

OpenSSL supports rc4 with 128-bit keys and rc4 with 40-bit keys. It does not support rc4 with 256-bit keys. My question is... is it possible to modify the state of the pseudo-random generation ...
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1answer
673 views

RC4 encryption/ decryption with hashing

I am working on RC4 encryption/ decryption algorithm based on the following: A wants to send M to B, for that A did: H = Hash (K||M) C = Ek (M||H) A sent ...
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2answers
214 views

Does a stream cipher require a KDF when it's key is variable length?

RC4 has a variable length key. Is it still necessary to use a key derivation function, such as PBKDF2, to initialize it? Would using a single character password weaken it's output when compared to a ...
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2answers
1k views

Security analysis of Spritz?

Recently, a new cipher called Spritz has been released by Ronald L. Rivest and Jacob Schuldt. It should be a "drop-in replacement" for RC4. There are many differences to RC4, Spritz is "spongy" and ...
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1answer
422 views

Do Export Restrictions Still Apply To The Key Length of RC4?

I've just read a paper from 2004 which stated that the RC4 encryption algorithm was restricted to a 40 bit key size when exported from the USA; however the reference for this information (Applied ...