Questions tagged [reference-request]

A reference request is a request to be provided with a source from documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures. Open ended literature recommendation requests are off topic! Also: Crypto.SE is not an optimal replacement for a search engine. The reference-request tag is not something that provides a base to replace research efforts.

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What is the Indexed Code Book Mode?

While reading specsheets for NXP processors (example mention in this PDF) the other day I saw the mention of the Indexed Code Book mode (ICB) for their AES acceleration hardware - the only mode they ...
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Threshold signature verified by an equivalent key

I am looking for references for the following problem: Consider we have a DSA with the keypair $(sk, pk)$ and a message $m$, such that its signature is $s = sig(m,sk)$ and the verification result is $...
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Directional vector privacy-preserving techniques

I'm new to cryptography, and I wonder if it's possible to temporarily track users by observing directional vectors in Mobile-Ad-Hoc-Networks, and if there are any methods, in case it is trackable, to ...
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What is $z_b$ in this introduction to Private Information Retrieval?

I was trying to read this introduction to private information retrieval. On page 12 of the document, a scheme for 1-DB private information retrieval is discussed. I was unable to understand one of the ...
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1answer
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Constant Time algorithms for $\mathbb{Z}/m\mathbb{Z}$, $\mathbb{Z}/m\mathbb{Z}[x]$, and $\mathbb{Z}/m\mathbb{Z}[x] / (f(x))$?

I want to implement some (lattice based) protocols to better familiarize myself with a programming language (Rust). These tend to do arithmetic over rings like $\mathbb{Z}/m\mathbb{Z}$, or "...
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What is the original paper of the length extension attack on hash based MAC functions

A message authentication code (MAC) based on using a hash function with the secret prefix $H(k||m)$ technique goes back to two independent sources according to Tsudik's article on 1992; S. Crocker, S....
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Why does NIST say that 2nd preimage resistance depends on the message length

In NIST FIPS 202 on the table, It is written as Function Output Size Collision PreImage 2nd Preimage SHA-1 160 < 80 160 160–L(M) SHA-224 224 112 224 min(224, 256–L(M)) SHA-512/224 224 112 224 ...
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Is Bruce Schneier Applied Cryptography, Second ed. up to date?

I like Applied Cryptography, and I am returning to cryptography after a while. So I am wondering if that book is up to date or can be complemented with other references. I am looking for a book, ...
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Generalization of Bezout Identity for Polynomials

Let $i \in \{1,\ldots, n\}$, $f_i(x)$ be a univariate polynomial, and $g(x) = \mathsf{GCD}(f_1(x), \ldots,f_n(x))$. According to Bezout identity, there exists $a_i(x)$ such that: $$\sum_{i \in [n]}a_i(...
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Do Korea and Japan have their own national hashing standard?

I know China has SM3 and SM4 commercial cryptographic hash and block cipher standards, and I know Japan has Camellia block cipher and Korea has SEED. Do Japan and Korea have an industry standard for ...
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Security analysis of Rijndael (AES)

I was studying the Rijndael Block Cipher for an assignment. I am looking for a (layman-ish) explanation as to why the cipher is secure. Googling did not seem to be give any good explanations. The ...
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1answer
63 views

References about a boolean function involving hamming weight

Some weeks ago, I read an article about an interesting boolean function with some applications to cryptography. Then, I forgot about the article and now I cannot find it. Hence here I am asking if ...
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1answer
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Is there any code available online for CHA-1? [closed]

Is there any code available online for the chaos-based hash algorithm CHA-1? I am trying to apply the methodology of this paper to blockchain applications.
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Applications of Shuffle Proofs

Shuffle proofs enable a prover to show that a vector of commitments or encryptions $(c_1, \dots, c_n)$ is permuted into a vector of commitments $(c'_1, \dots, c'_n)$ without revealing the permutation ...
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Computationally binding commitment

A Computationally Binding commitment scheme is defined as a tuple of protocols $(\mathsf{Keygen}, \mathsf{Com}, \mathsf{Open})$, that along with correctness guarantees that for all PPT algorithms the ...
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1answer
220 views

Argument of Knowledge - Definition

I've recently understood the difference between Interactive Proofs and Arguments, but even if several standard variations of IP are well known and thoroughly described in textbooks (Goldreich for ...
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OAuth(2) and friends

I've worked on low-level security (side-channel attacks etc.) for years and have a PhD in crypto. Web security is something I've never needed to touch beyond knowing how the TLS handshake works with ...
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Attacks on LCG with “self-XOR” output function?

Consider an ordinary LCG modulo $2^n$ with an internal state of $n$ bits and an output of $n/2$ bits, with the twist that instead of simply truncating the state to produce an output, we take the upper ...
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Rivest - Time Memory Tradeoff Using Distinguished Points

A while ago, Hellman introduced a time-memory tradeoff for chosen plaintext attack on block ciphers. There is an innovation due Rivest using a concept of 'distinguished points'. I am looking for the ...
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1answer
59 views

Is there a simplified article, video, or blog about bulletproofs?

I'm trying to learn about bulletproofs for my master "Enhancing Privacy in E-voting Systems", but the original paper was too hard for me. I also tried to look at this, but it was also too difficult. ...
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KDF3 - implementation explanation

An old project that I did not code is using the KDF3 algorithm, but I struggle to find an explanation about the way this key derivation algorithm works. I know that this algorithm is part of the ISO-...
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1answer
71 views

Confused about terminology in the many flavors of security [closed]

I am learning about cryptography from diverse sources, and I have found terminology a bit confusing. In principle, I understand the difference between the symbolic model and the computational model. ...
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1answer
71 views

How should one handle the identity value and other “obviously” weak secret random values?

In RSA, ECDSA, ElGamal and quite a few other schemes, using a secret (random) value equal to 1 might not provide any form of security, while still being mathematically sound. For RSA, ECDSA or ...
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Where was the stand-alone model for simulation-based MPC proposed first?

The stand-alone model and the UC model for simulation-based proofs in multiparty computation differ in the guarantees that they provide: The stand-alone model provides security under sequential ...
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1answer
103 views

Variants of Bilinear Diffie-Hellman Assumption

Could someone point me to the paper/reference where the following variant of q-strong Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption was used? Given $s \in \mathbb{Z}_p^*$ and $g, g^{\frac{1}{s}}, g^{s}, g^{s^2},...
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Ressources for implementing cryptography [closed]

I am looking for resources on how to implement cryptographic algorithms. I am a cryptographic researcher, so I am not interested in reviewing the basics, and I don't need the talk about it not being ...
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1answer
47 views

Reference for the Security Analysis of Ring-LWE

Can someone please share a link of any research paper or web-page analyzing the security of Ring-LWE? Essentially, how should I choose my parameters to get security equivalent to 128-bit or 256-bit?
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1answer
83 views

IEEE P1619/XTS, inconsistent reference implementation and test vectors [closed]

I'm testing IEEE's P1619, which is XTS mode. IEEE documents from 2007 provided both test vectors and a reference implementation. Documents from 2008 only provided the reference implementation. Here is ...
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1answer
53 views

Reference books in security and privacy preservation [closed]

I am looking for books or reference guides to learn and teach "cryptography, security and privacy preservation techniques"? I need some advice to good resources that I can use.
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Do there exist cryptographic algorithms where the “core” function is 96-to-32-bit?

There exists a FOX family of block ciphers (Wikipedia article: IDEA NXT). This cipher uses a function called "f32" which operates on three 32-bit words and outputs one 32-bit word. This function ...
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1answer
235 views

Pollard's $(p - 1)$ factorization method runtime

Wondering if anyone knows a good reference for Pollard's $p-1$ algorithm's runtime? I was looking on the Wikipedia page and the runtime cited there is $\mathcal{O}(B\cdot \log B\cdot \log^2 n)$. ...
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Dependence of a Pseudorandom Function's Security on its Input/Output Spaces

Let $n$ be a security parameter and $F:\{0,1\}^{\ell_{key}(n)} \times \{0,1\}^{\ell_{in}(n)} \rightarrow \{0,1\}^{\ell_{out}(n)}$ be a keyed function which forms a family of Pseudorandom Functions (...
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What is the motivation of multipartite secret sharing?

In this thesis chapter 3.1 A multipartite secret sharing scheme is a scheme in which the set of participants is divided into several parts and all participants in the same part play an equivalent ...
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Subexponential algorithms that apply only one of factoring and discrete logarithm?

Shor (quantum polynomial), Number Field Sieve (subexponential), Pollard rho (square root) all have both factoring and discrete logarithm over $\mathbb F_p^*$ variants. What are the subexponential ...
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1answer
64 views

Privacy and warrants to obtain information

How could a site issue a `warrant'*, a document which: 1) Others can verify was issued from that site 2) Contains a date stamp, a named site and instructions which can be presented to a third site by ...
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Digital signature that is only verifiable by one specific person

I would like to digitally sign a message in such a way that the signature can only be verified by one specific person. Simply encrypting the signature will not work, because that person could then ...
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1answer
143 views

Cryptography resources for programmers

As a senior programmer entering blockchain projects, i'm looking for a comprehensive introduction to relevant cryptographic tools/primitives, preferably one that puts less emphasis on the math and ...
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1answer
67 views

Searching for a dining cryptographers problem variant

When I frist read about the famous dining cryptographers problem, in a book years ago I remember the author made a twist on it, demonstrating the generalization of the problem. Basically the dining ...
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544 views

Reference for additive secret sharing

Regarding the secret sharing schemes, I am wondering if there are any academic references for the Additive Secret Sharing and its variations. Is there any textbook or article which has specifically ...
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136 views

Formal security-definition reference

Is there a reference where all common formal security-definitions are summarized (such as OW-CPA, IND-CPA, IND-CCA1, IND-CCA2, EUF-CMA and so on)? I need a PUBLISHED reference (paper, book) which ...
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216 views

Why should one model an entropy source in order to build a TRNG?

Some assert that a theoretical model of the unconditioned source must be created when building any TRNG. It's believed to be a fundamental requirement. So a few related questions arise:- What is a "...
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1answer
507 views

What are implementations of PRNGs based on ChaCha20? [closed]

I thought I'd find an implementation in NaCl, but /dev/urandom is what I find. Search engines samples revealed most implementations are broken. What libraries are ...
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1answer
165 views

Where can I find the standard definition for GPG ECDSA signature?

I am playing around with GPG which I'd like to use to sign an integer and use the resulting signature binary in another piece of code. So far I have created a simple PGP packet parser with which I ...
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1answer
198 views

Inverse of an element in a RSA group

Consider a RSA group $Z_N$ for $N=pq$, where $p,q$ are large prime numbers. Under strong RSA assumption, can an adversary efficiently compute the inverse of a random element $z$ from $Z_N$ without ...
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1answer
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Original papers for hashing functions

I would like to learn how hashing functions are discovered / created. In part of this process I think it would be helpful to see the original works or papers of any authors of cryptographic or non-...
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134 views

Old French Cipher w/ Text Hidden In Drawing

I'm trying to find a cipher challenge I saw a few years back, it was an old drawing (I think 1800's or earlier) with clouds and stars on it and French text was hidden in the image. Does anyone happen ...
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2answers
375 views

Is there a symmetric cipher that is explicitly designed to be slow?

I am trying to find a symmetric cipher that is explicitly designed to be slow. I realize that this is generally not desirable, but I'd like many cycles and lots of electronic action. I could modify ...
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2answers
81 views

Is there a way to sign a message without being allowed to see it?

I want to sign a message while not being able to see the message. Logically, there should be a way, I just don't know how this translates into cryptography. Here is an illustration for what I mean: ...
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1answer
81 views

Time-release Protocol Implementation

“How to Build Time-Lock Encryption” by Jager “Time-release Protocol from Bitcoin and Witness Encryption for SAT” by Liu, Garcia, and Ryan I looked through the references, googled, searched GitHub ...
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1answer
2k views

AES MixColumns Predefined Lookup 2D Tables and Rcon Predefined Lookup 2D Table

I need to have the a copy of predefined 2D table lookup for AES MixColumns when state is multiplied by 2 and 3, 9,11,13,14 and also the Rcon predefine table. I search it everywhere but I couldn't ...

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