Questions tagged [reference-request]

A reference request is a request to be provided with a source from documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures. Open ended literature recommendation requests are off topic! Also: Crypto.SE is not an optimal replacement for a search engine. The reference-request tag is not something that provides a base to replace research efforts.

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35 views

Privacy and warrants to obtain information

How could a site issue a `warrant'*, a document which: 1) Others can verify was issued from that site 2) Contains a date stamp, a named site and instructions which can be presented to a third site by ...
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Digital signature that is only verifiable by one specific person

I would like to digitally sign a message in such a way that the signature can only be verified by one specific person. Simply encrypting the signature will not work, because that person could then ...
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1answer
127 views

Cryptography resources for programmers

As a senior programmer entering blockchain projects, i'm looking for a comprehensive introduction to relevant cryptographic tools/primitives, preferably one that puts less emphasis on the math and ...
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1answer
57 views

Searching for a dining cryptographers problem variant

When I frist read about the famous dining cryptographers problem, in a book years ago I remember the author made a twist on it, demonstrating the generalization of the problem. Basically the dining ...
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51 views

Reference for additive secret sharing

Regarding the secret sharing schemes, I am wondering if there are any academic references for the Additive Secret Sharing and its variations. Is there any textbook or article which has specifically ...
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0answers
69 views

Formal security-definition reference

Is there a reference where all common formal security-definitions are summarized (such as OW-CPA, IND-CPA, IND-CCA1, IND-CCA2, EUF-CMA and so on)? I need a PUBLISHED reference (paper, book) which ...
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2answers
158 views

Why should one model an entropy source in order to build a TRNG?

Some assert that a theoretical model of the unconditioned source must be created when building any TRNG. It's believed to be a fundamental requirement. So a few related questions arise:- What is a "...
2
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1answer
153 views

What are implementations of PRNGs based on ChaCha20? [closed]

I thought I'd find an implementation in NaCl, but /dev/urandom is what I find. Search engines samples revealed most implementations are broken. What libraries are ...
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1answer
36 views

Where can I find the standard definition for GPG ECDSA signature?

I am playing around with GPG which I'd like to use to sign an integer and use the resulting signature binary in another piece of code. So far I have created a simple PGP packet parser with which I ...
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1answer
74 views

Inverse of an element in a RSA group

Consider a RSA group $Z_N$ for $N=pq$, where $p,q$ are large prime numbers. Under strong RSA assumption, can an adversary efficiently compute the inverse of a random element $z$ from $Z_N$ without ...
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1answer
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Original papers for hashing functions

I would like to learn how hashing functions are discovered / created. In part of this process I think it would be helpful to see the original works or papers of any authors of cryptographic or non-...
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108 views

Old French Cipher w/ Text Hidden In Drawing

I'm trying to find a cipher challenge I saw a few years back, it was an old drawing (I think 1800's or earlier) with clouds and stars on it and French text was hidden in the image. Does anyone happen ...
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What is the computational complexity of Coppersmith's bivariate algorithm?

Coppersmith's original paper Finding a Small Root of a Bivariate Integer Equation; Factoring with High Bits Known says the algorithm to find bivariate roots under certain conditions runs in ...
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2answers
345 views

Is there a symmetric cipher that is explicitly designed to be slow?

I am trying to find a symmetric cipher that is explicitly designed to be slow. I realize that this is generally not desirable, but I'd like many cycles and lots of electronic action. I could modify ...
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2answers
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Is there a way to sign a message without being allowed to see it?

I want to sign a message while not being able to see the message. Logically, there should be a way, I just don't know how this translates into cryptography. Here is an illustration for what I mean: ...
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1answer
69 views

Time-release Protocol Implementation

“How to Build Time-Lock Encryption” by Jager “Time-release Protocol from Bitcoin and Witness Encryption for SAT” by Liu, Garcia, and Ryan I looked through the references, googled, searched GitHub ...
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1answer
295 views

AES MixColumns Predefined Lookup 2D Tables and Rcon Predefined Lookup 2D Table

I need to have the a copy of predefined 2D table lookup for AES MixColumns when state is multiplied by 2 and 3, 9,11,13,14 and also the Rcon predefine table. I search it everywhere but I couldn't ...
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1answer
50 views

Counting the number of binary solutions of quadratic system

I have a quadratic system of equations related to a balanced RSA modulus $n=pq$ (i.e. $\log p\approx\log q$), and I want to give an upper bound on the number of solutions. Indeed, let $p_i,q_i$ be ...
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1answer
93 views

What is Standard Referencing of Cryptography Papers

I am writing a paper. One of my references is 1)Barreto, P. and Rijmen, V., “The Khazad Legacy-Level Block Cipher,” Submission to the NESSIE Project, vol. 97, 2004. My professor criticize ...
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2answers
67 views

How is formal analysis of the strength of a round achieved?

I've been trying to understand how the number of rounds are picked for ciphers. There seems to be a minimum number of rounds that is analyzed for "strength" and then some security margin is added. ...
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1answer
73 views

Reference for the Tortoise and Hare algorithm by Floyd?

Can someone please point me to a book or paper that describes the Tortoise and Hare algorithm by Floyd? I know there are ample websites out there, but for reference purposes, I need a book or paper ...
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1answer
66 views

Can NORX be used as a general purpose hash function?

In general terms, NORX works combining a cryptographic hash function and an stream cipher. At the end of an encryption operation you end with a ciphered message plus its authenticated hash. If you ...
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1answer
539 views

Any concrete examples of the use of NIST Special Publication 800-90B?

This question relates to NIST Special Publication 800-90B, Recommendation for the Entropy Sources used for Random Bit Generation. A copy is available here. Can anyone supply a pointer to any ...
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Adding bit constants to the key schedule to reduce rounds?

Bit constants are often added to the key schedule to reduce slide attacks. I have reviewed David Wagner's work, where he showed that the increased rounds in a Feistel network do not help if you have ...
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1answer
69 views

Can you point me to an MDS table reference for the Kalyna cipher?

I'm working with cipher Kalyna. Kalyna — like AES — has MDS tables in its MixColumns step. But Kalyna's documentation doesn't list these MDS tables. Could you give me a hint where to find proper ...
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1answer
51 views

Would it be possible to negotiate a key of 128 or 256 bits strength using Merkle puzzles?

One can be fascinated by the simplicity of the schemes created by Ralf Merkle; like the Merkle tree or his key negociation protocol over an insecure channel. Wikipedia has some material on "Merkle ...
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3answers
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How to thwart a cleartext message's size?

Here is a question I don't find addressed in my cryptography books: let's say Alice want to send Bob a message of length N. what is the proper way for Alice to hide N? I am thinking Alice should do ...
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1answer
2k views

What was NIST’s reason to switch naming from MD… (Message Digest) to SHA… (Secure Hashing Algorithm)?

When NIST introduced SHA-0 in 1993, they – for the first time – switched their naming convention from MD-n to SHA-n. Since both point to similar constructions (read: hashing algorithms with the same ...
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1answer
185 views

Is there a standard padding/format for RSA Blind Signatures?

I'm working on a RSA blinded signature scheme. RSA Blind signatures are discussed in Chaum's original paper and other places like wikipedia. The descriptions of RSA blind signatures are straight ...
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0answers
75 views

*feasible* pre-image attacks against reduced SHA-1

(tldr: see last paragraph) Although SHA-1 is vulnerable to collision attacks, it is still resistant to pre-image attacks. SHA-1 was designed to be resistant until a brute-force attack of $2^{160}$ is ...
6
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1answer
98 views

Is the context of “constant time” algorithms inclusive when you have a clock control?

There is generally a push to make algorithms and components constant time to be resistance to side channel attacks. For instance, AES-NI instructions take as many cycles as rounds; however, I can ...
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Are there any references on using neural networks to distinguish CSPRNGs?

No feasible algorithm should be able to distinguish the outputs of two CSPRNGs. Are there any research papers that present results of actually testing this? In particular, I'm interested in ...
2
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1answer
97 views

Are there encryption systems that are both homomorphic and commutative?

If so, which ones are? If not, is it known whether or not these are mutually exclusive? Is there a page that exhaustively lists encryption systems and properties such as these? I could not find a ...
5
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1answer
194 views

How difficult is inverting a non-square matrix?

Partially inspired by ring learning with errors (RLWE), I am trying to construct a cryptosystem that requires the use of a non-invertible matrix. Of the methods I've thought of to generate a matrix ...
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3answers
534 views

Has any alternative to RSA and Discrete Logarithm been standardized for deployment?

Suppose RSA and Discrete Logarithm over any group (including elliptic curves) gets broken what other schemes we have for DEPLOYMENT IMMEDIATELY do we have to rescue the internet from collapse? So ...
5
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1answer
148 views

Standard parameters for Boneh–Lynn–Shacham signature?

The Boneh–Lynn–Shacham signature is (as far as I know) unrivaled in compactness, promising $b$-bit security for $2b$-bit signature. Are there standard parameters for BLS signature, (being?) defined ...
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1answer
300 views

Where is HChaCha20 formally defined?

I stumbled upon the Q&A “Advantages of HS1-SIV over ChaCha20-Poly1305-SIV?” which mentions “HChaCha20” in the question. Trying to look it up via the usual research sources, I failed to find an ...
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1answer
5k views

Public-key format for ECDSA as in FIPS 186-4?

What is the public-key format for ECDSA as in FIPS 186-4, and where is it formally defined? In particular, are there variants beyond Cartesian coordinates? Is that a pair of bitstrings, or a ...
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2answers
795 views

What are good sources for properly learning cryptography for a mathematician? [closed]

I'm a pure mathematics student(currently in a Msc program) looking to get into cryptography. I imagine most "regular" introductory books on cryptography would avoid being too heavy on mathematical ...
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4answers
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When is an RNG a CSPRNG, a CSRNG, or a TRNG?

In a recent answer to a question about CSPRNGs, it was stated that… Nondeterministic algorithms where there is no such requirement, and ideally could be replaced by a true random generator. ...
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1answer
171 views

AES ShiftRow Confusion

I'm implementing AES and I'm getting confused in the ShiftRows step. So far, my key expansion and SubBytes works and I get the ...
3
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1answer
251 views

Fortuna: Reseeding

It is recommended that a new seed file be generated approximately every ten minutes by seed file manager in FORTUNA,though it depends on the application and on the rate of the accumulation of entropy. ...
2
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2answers
163 views

Good Hash and making a bad hash

It is obvious that there are different hashes. I am looking for a reference on hash complexity as it relates to strength because I am considering making a "bad hash". I have read a few things on the ...
4
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2answers
192 views

Special-purpose witness encryption without multilinear maps

In Witness Encryption and its Applications Garg et al describe "witness encryption" which allows one to encrypt some specified data to a NP problem, such that another party can decrypt iff they ...
4
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1answer
441 views

Proof of $\sqrt{\pi/2}$ in birthday paradox?

I had found in the past a publication in a crypto conference (in 80s if i am not mistaken) which I believe was the first proof why for example a random function $f:X\rightarrow X$ with $\#X=2^n,$ is ...
4
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1answer
262 views

O(1) EC Linkable Ring Signature Without Group Manager

I'm looking for a practical example for creating an EC Ring Signature, very much at the level of detail as found in the CryptoNote Whitepaper but with O(1). I saw Short Linkable Ring Signatures for E-...
6
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1answer
606 views

Normalization of points on an Elliptic Curve

The Bouncy Castle source code (Java edition) has a ECPoint.normalize() function. It seems to calculate the modular inverse of a coordinate of a point on the curve. ...
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1answer
133 views

Who defined semantic security?

In my opinion the most important development in cryptography in the last 30 years is the precise definition of semantic security of a cipher. This definition captures the intuitive ideas of Martin ...
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1answer
1k views

How I can attach a signed hash to a file?

I am signing files through a web service. As I want to reduce the bandwidth consumption I am signing only hash, but I don't know how can I attach the signed hash to the file. How can I do this?
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2answers
376 views

What is the official, generally accepted definition of “lightweight crypto”?

I frequently stumble upon the term "lightweight crypto". It tends to be used is a for special algorithms that use less resources, for constrained systems. Yet, it's somewhat unclear to me where to ...