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Questions tagged [reference-request]

A reference request is a request to be provided with a source from documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures. Open ended literature recommendation requests are off topic! Also: Crypto.SE is not an optimal replacement for a search engine. The reference-request tag is not something that provides a base to replace research efforts.

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Which was the first cipher that used the Maximum distance separable (MDS) matrix?

MDS matrices are used in the diffusion layer of block ciphers. I am interested in knowing who was the first researcher(s) who used an MDS matrix in their cipher. Thanks in advance.
1 vote
1 answer
52 views

Literature on Batching in FHE

From what I understand, the folklore way to batch Ring-LWE style cipher texts is to use the Chinese remainder theorem. I am wondering if there are any different approaches/optimizations to this style ...
2 votes
1 answer
144 views

Post-quantum EU-CMA security from OWF-only

In the paper: "Universal One-Way Hash Functions and their Cryptographic Applications". The following is proven: "If 1-1 one-way functions exist, then the one-way based signature scheme ...
4 votes
3 answers
514 views

Citation to original paper by Davies-Meyer on one way compression functions

I see a lot of references to the Davies-Meyer construction for one-way compression functions. But I can't find any citation to the original paper. Does anyone have it?
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

One Way Functions with Non-Uniform Inputs

It is well-known that a One-Way Function is hard to invert on uniformly random inputs. As per Wikipedia, for [sic] all randomized algorithms $F$, all positive integers $c$ and all sufficiently large $...
11 votes
1 answer
3k views

Is every point on an elliptic curve of a prime order group a generator?

If the order of elliptic group is prime then every point is a generator of that group. I tested the above statement on some elliptic curves and found it true. Does that really work on all curves? Is ...
2 votes
1 answer
89 views

"intermediate" PRNG

Two popular example dynamical systems for PRNG are LFSRs, basically the orbit $(x^ks)_{k>0}$ for some non-zero seed $s$ and (primitive) $x$ in $GF(2^n)^{\times}$ CTR_DRBG, say with AES128 and 256-...
0 votes
0 answers
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Aggregate Signatures Overview

I've been learning about aggregate signatures lately, are there any overviews or learning materials about aggregate signatures (including security properties)?
3 votes
1 answer
511 views

On real-time decryption of encrypted radio communications

According to Jack Watling & Nick Reynolds, Ukrainian officers recalled one incident in which the Russian headquarters gave pre-emptive warning to its units of an artillery strike based on ...
11 votes
3 answers
15k views

Digital Signature using symmetric key cryptography

Generally digital signature is a public key cryptography concept.But it needs high overhead. So is there any publication or link available where 'digital signature using symmetric key' has been ...
2 votes
1 answer
198 views

Correlation among pseudorandom sequences generated from correlated seeds

I want to see and mathematically verify how pseudonoise (PN) sequence generated by LFSR or maximum length codes would correlate (auto-correlation and cross correlation) for seeds of varying ...
4 votes
1 answer
142 views

VIC cipher author known?

Does anybody know if the design of VIC cipher is attributed to anybody? I've tried Google and found nothing. There are quite a few sites describing the method in detail, a few implementing it ...
1 vote
2 answers
960 views

What is the functional role of CKY-I and CKY-R in ISAKMP (IKEv1)?

According to RFC 2409: CKY-I and CKY-R are the Initiator's cookie and the Responder's cookie, respectively, from the ISAKMP header. Each CKY is a 64 bit value that is included in each ISAKMP Header ...
2 votes
1 answer
277 views

Choosing (key,plain) to produce zero state in middle rounds of AES encrypt

I was told in passing that (key, plain) pairs could be chosen to produce a zero state in AES encrypt in some middle round (say 5). [The application here being to side-channel leakage assessment.] ...
7 votes
0 answers
306 views

Who invented salt, and why is it called salt?

I'm looking for an authoritative reference about the history of salts in the context of hash functions. Why is the personalization string in a hash function called a "salt"? Who should be ...
-1 votes
1 answer
422 views

What's the best encryption algorithm for storing files on a server?

I'm making a cloud-based service. So, basically, my users will be able to upload files (any type of files) and they will be uploaded to a server. I am aware that I have two options: Upload the files ...
0 votes
1 answer
120 views

Searching for a dining cryptographers problem variant

When I frist read about the famous dining cryptographers problem, in a book years ago I remember the author made a twist on it, demonstrating the generalization of the problem. Basically the dining ...
1 vote
1 answer
64 views

Modern proof of Kilian's result that OT is complete for 2PC

I'm looking for a textbook or article that spells out the details of Kilian's paper on the completeness of oblivious transfer for secure two-party function evaluation (2PC). Kilian's paper is in the ...
1 vote
0 answers
68 views

Authors of "How to explain zero-knowledge Protocols to your children?"

Does anyone know what are the family relationships in the paper "How to Explain Zero-Knowledge Protocols to Your Children" The authors are: Jean-Jacques Quisquater, Myriam Quisquater, Muriel ...
1 vote
1 answer
40 views

LWE KEMs and message coding

In many proposed lattice PKE schemes, the plaintext is encoded or modulated in a simple fashion, e.g. using Kyber-ish notation: key gen: $pk=(A, t=As+e)$, $\quad sk=s\quad$ ($A$ random, $s$, $e$ ...
39 votes
1 answer
2k views

Who first published the interest of more than two prime factors in RSA?

Multi-prime RSA is now a well known technique (described here): it uses $k>2$ distinct secret prime factors in the public RSA modulus, with the advantage that, using the CRT, we can gain a speed ...
3 votes
1 answer
208 views

Why in authenticated encryptions do we need separate keys for cipher and MAC?

As asked, I suppose this must have been answered before, even if not in the form asked here. The most notable AEAD schemes GCM-AES and ChaCha20-Poly1305 do this. Also, even outside AEAD, ad-hoc ...
14 votes
1 answer
7k views

Description of signatures with message recovery (as in ISO/IEC 9796-2 and EMV Signatures)

I'd like to get an overview of how the signatures with message recovery work, especially in case EMV and other smart card systems. Is there a nice overview available without being required to read the ...
0 votes
0 answers
50 views

Security assumption: Where is an assumption from (who provides and formalizes it)?

Is there a list of all the (most) assumptions (such as RSA and DDH assumptions) used in cryptography and the corresponding properties?
3 votes
3 answers
740 views

Reference implementation of Shamir's Secret Sharing

Is there an implementation of Shamir's Secret Sharing that can be regarded as a "canonical" (or "reference" or "standard") implementation, so that I can test other ...
8 votes
2 answers
421 views

Where did Martin Hellman acknowledge Ralph Merkle's contribution to public-key cryptography?

I am trying to find the article to reference when discussing the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. According to Wikipedia Hellman said that The system...has since become known as Diffie–Hellman key ...
1 vote
0 answers
84 views

References and Books for the basics

I started studying again recently, I forgot plenty of stuff. But there are 2 areas that I am really struggling. The procedures to prove and demonstrate theorems. The basic math necessary for ...
24 votes
3 answers
2k views

Selective format-compliant JPEG encryption?

I am working towards building a format-compliant encryption system for pictures. The aim of it is to be able to obscure specific areas of a picture (i.e. faces, car license numbers...) while keeping ...
2 votes
1 answer
189 views

Info AES cryptanalysis

I have some doubts regarding AES weakness and AES cryptanalysis. While it is relatively simple to find Cryptanalysis info on previous ciphers, I get confused about understanding various types of ...
7 votes
1 answer
500 views

What's the state of the art attack to get the first pre-image on MD4?

What's the state of the art attack to get the first pre-image on MD4? Is it still $2^{102}$ as described by Gaëtan Leurent in "MD4 is Not One-Way" ?
2 votes
1 answer
311 views

Security of equal discrete logs (over different bases)

I am trying to find a reduction for the following DLOG problem in generic groups. It is a simple generalization but I'm not finding any reference (the closest being the Chaum-Pedersen signature scheme ...
4 votes
3 answers
906 views

Comparison: complexity measures vs. security

Assume that you want to compare several cryptographic primitives (say, encryption schemes), and choose one. You need to consider several complexity measures, such as the key length, encryption time, ...
3 votes
1 answer
186 views

Prove that certain amount of data was stored

I'm looking for a way to prove that a certain amount of data was stored, through some easily verifiable piece of information. Similarly to how proof-of-work can prove through a hash that a certain ...
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

How lattices and LWE are connected?

I am a last-year master student in pure mathematics and I am working on my thesis. I am working on a connection between lattice-based encryption and Ring LWE and between Ring LWE and Homomorphic ...
1 vote
0 answers
209 views

"Add" points that are not on the same elliptic curve?

Assume elliptic curve in Weierstrass form. $y^2 = x^3 + a x + b$ where $x,y,a,b \in F$ I noticed the point addition formula does not involve parameters $a,b$. Furthermore, one can always solve for $a,...
6 votes
3 answers
963 views

Has any alternative to RSA and Discrete Logarithm been standardized for deployment?

Suppose RSA and Discrete Logarithm over any group (including elliptic curves) gets broken tomorrow what other schemes we have for DEPLOYMENT IMMEDIATELY do we have to rescue the internet from collapse?...
4 votes
1 answer
699 views

Why is this function bijective?

I cannot seem to understand why the function $F$ defined in Theorem 7.1 of the paper “Permutation rotation-symmetric Sboxes, liftings and affine equivalence” is described as “a bijection on $\mathbb{F}...
1 vote
1 answer
148 views

looking for BKZ earliest algorithm and its application in cryptography

I am reading lattice based cryptography for my master thesis, I am looking for the earliest version of BKZ algorithm, and its applications in cryptography, to understand it very well, I already know ...
8 votes
1 answer
210 views

Where did Whitfield Diffie say "If you can make random numbers, you can have a private conversation"?

I've seen the following (alleged) quotation on this site and other places:- If you can make random numbers, you can have a private conversation. -Whitfield Diffie. Yet we (Google & me) can't ...
10 votes
1 answer
598 views

Who is the inventor of the OFB block cipher mode of operation?

Handbook of Applied Cryptography gives two resources for the OFB mode 1980 FIPS 81. This doesn't give any references, unlike NIST. 1983 ANSI X3.106, unfortunately pay-walled. Who is the inventor of ...
1 vote
0 answers
1k views

How to find the 6 main properties of cryptographic hash functions when implementing a hash function?

According to this there are at least 6 "properties" all cryptographically secure hash functions strive to attain: Deterministic: the same message always results in the same hash; Quick: it ...
1 vote
1 answer
387 views

Baby steps with example, looking for an "AES for Idiots" type of explanation

Countless examples all over on implementation of AES. None of these actually make sense to someone with zero cryptographic or advanced mathematical experience. This => too abstract & technical.....
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Step-by-step working out with example input for NIST Hash Functions like SHA-1,SHA-2, and SHA-3

I am working on doing a naive Python implementation of SHA-1,SHA-2, and SHA-3 and I need to test and debug because the hash result right now is not correct. I have found a step-by-step working out of ...
19 votes
0 answers
467 views

Adding bit constants to the key schedule to reduce rounds?

Bit constants are often added to the key schedule to reduce slide attacks. I have reviewed David Wagner's work, where he showed that the increased rounds in a Feistel network do not help if you have ...
1 vote
0 answers
180 views

Classic secret sharing schemes vs Homomorphic secret sharing schemes

What is the difference between the classic secret sharing schemes that are used in the protocols of Ben-or and Rabin, Ben-Or, M., Goldwasser, S., Wigderson (that is the Shamir's secret sharing scheme) ...
2 votes
1 answer
382 views

How can I understand the math behind crypto, especially that used in blockchains / distributed ledgers?

A bit of a background about me; Computer Engineer but during my studies I didn't dive too deep into the maths, especially the crypto maths that is used to make the blockchain and cryptography work. I'...
0 votes
1 answer
82 views

Where can I find good practice questions for proofs by reduction?

I already have the Katz-Lindell textbook, but I also want some additional practice problems for security reductions for stuff like PRFs, MACs, digital signatures, private and public key schemes, and ...
5 votes
3 answers
1k views

Update to "Cryptographic Right Answers"

I'm a big fan of Colin Percival's "Cryptographic Right Answers" post. This was written in 2009, which is a long time ago in Internet years. Is the advice still valid or, if not, can someone point me ...
0 votes
0 answers
110 views

Homomorphic Encryption Library Supporting Addition, Multiplication & Logical Shift

Does anyone know of a C++ homomorphic encryption library that supports addition, multiplication and logical right shift over integers? Some set of instructions that allows the implementation of ...
2 votes
0 answers
68 views

Designated verifier signature from Diffie–Hellman and a MAC

Here is an idea for a designated verifier signature scheme. Suppose Alice and Bob know each other’s public keys and Alice wants to send a message to Bob, such that only he will be convinced of its ...

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