Questions tagged [rsa]

an asymmetric (e.g. public-key) cryptosystem, based on modular exponentiation with big exponents and modulus. RSA can be used both for signature and encryption.

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How to calculate M when the attacker know e and w

Alice has a pair of RSA keys, the public key is $(n,e)$, the clear text message $M$ and the ciphertext $C=M^e \pmod n$. We suppose that Bob wants to encrypt two successive messages and send them to ...
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Does larger key size mean larger data size in asymmetric encryption?

I'm new to cryptography. I know the larger the key size (like 128-bit vs 1024-bit) the harder the ciphertext is to crack, generally. But assuming everything else being equal, does a larger key size ...
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Security of ciphersuite and key

Is anyone able to cite resources that can be based on choosing a cipher suite? In my case, for a VPN server (OpenVPN) I chose a set of ciphers: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 It provides 128 ...
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RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-256AndMGF1Padding in Ruby [migrated]

Any thoughts on the best approach to decrypt a value encrypted with RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-256AndMGF1Padding encryption in Ruby? Or general steps?
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Using RSA encryption with OpenSSL library: secure?

I'm working on a small program (in C) that writes encrypted log files, but there are a lot of articles out there that say you should avoid RSA whenever possible. However, most of these articles also ...
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RSA - What to do when message is greater than N [duplicate]

Exmple: $e=3, n=33$ and $d =7$ and Message is $64$.
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Can the RSA accumulator scheme be converted to Elliptic Curve math?

Is it possible to translate the RSA accumulator scheme directly to EC without requiring bilinear pairings? In RSA we have: $A_{n+1} = A_n^c$ st. $\{c \: \textrm{prime} \: | \: c \in [\...
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Differences between Gcd and factoring [closed]

please can someone explain to me the difference between the following. Using two different numbers I. E one is the rsa key and the other a number working from 2 upwards to work out the Gcd, until the ...
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How to find prime number q in RSA?

To be assumed in RSA key generation algorithm $p$ is a constant prime number and $e$ is an arbitrary prime and also $d$ is an odd number that is relatively prime to $e$. Based on these conditions ...
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Factorization of the public value $N$ from the RSA cryptosystem

It is mentioned here that the public value $N=p*q$ of the RSA cryptosystem can be factorized if one of the factors is reused. Thus, if $N_1=p*q_1$ and $N_2=p*q_2$ and only $N_1$ and $N_2$ are known, ...
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Computational Complexity: ECC multiplication vs Modular multiplication

How does performing scalar multiplication on an elliptic curve compare to exponentiation in a multiplicative group modulo a prime? I.e. on a given elliptic curve of size $|t|$, what's the complexity ...
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Fermat's little theorem in RSA with CRT

I have a question about the calculation of RSA decryption with the help of the CRT (Chinese Remainder Theorem). If $c$ is the crytogram, $m$ the message, $d$ the private key and $p, q$ the primes. ...
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Can a public key be same as private key?

As I understand, we choose the public and private keys to be mutual inverses. However, it is possible that, in a group, there can be numbers which are their own inverses. E.g. Consider p = 7, q = 3. n ...
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Can we estimate the amount of entropy required to generate an RSA key?

Of say 4096 bits as is a default GPG master key. I can manage the first one or so almost immediately on Ubuntu. It then runs out of entropy when generating several more RSA keys, and I'm forced ...
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Why RSA2048 sign of Intel accelerate card is fast?

Intel accelerate card This card executes rsa2048 sign 35K ops(operation/second). My fast version is only 100 ops. I can't find any HSM paper that has same performance level. I am interested in this ...
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Are there any flaws in this pseudocode?

I'm developing an algorithm that cracks small RSA keys (And theoretically bigg ones too, though might take some time), and was wondering if anyone you spot any flaws in this python code: ...
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In which public key encryption algorithms are the private and public key not reversible?

The RSA public key encryption system has the characteristic that the public key and the private key can be reversed. That is, information encrypted with the public key can be decrypted with the ...
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Encryption/Decryption on multiple users using RSA?

Supposing I have Alice that is the RA, Bob (who is a user) and Kate (who is also a user). For now I use RSA. Alice sends a message to Bob. Alice also sends a message to Kate. Bob and Kate exchange ...
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Alternate to distributing master key to every user in circle of trust

I am designing an end-to-end encrypted file storage system where only the user should be able to access their own data. The best I could come up with is a system designed around a master key that is ...
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Is there an equivalent to an RSA UFO in lattice-based cryptography?

So there's this concept within the realm of RSA cryptography called an RSA UFO. It is an extremely important function in the context of cryptocurrency. When starting up a cryptocurrency the creator(s) ...
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What encryption shoud I use for single char encryption?

I'm very new to encryption and I wanted to know if it is secure or just possible to use encryption on single chars. I did some research, but nothing to clear and i'm a bit confused. The modes I think ...
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Can the original data be extracted from an RSA private key signed message

I'm working on a system that the main objective is to verify the message was written by the right person, but it would also be desirable if the message can't be understood by anyone sniffing it. It ...
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Prime number size and RSA decryption

Is there a former proof for why larger prime numbers make RSA securer? Maybe a theorem to show that it takes much more time to find out the private key if primes are larger?
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What does it imply if in RSA pow(m, e, n) is same as the m

So, Let's assume we have n which is made up of 2 strong primes which cannot be factored & e which is textbook value of e ...
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Why is prime number size important for RSA security?

RSA modulus is $N = pq$ where $p$ and $q$ are prime numbers. I read from somewhere that the time it takes to decrypt the RSA encryption increases exponentially as key length increases, which depends ...
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RSA factorization with special primes

Suppose that primes for RSA modulus are generated using formula: $P_i(x,y) = \operatorname{next\_prime}(x^{z_i}+y^{z_i}) = x^{z_i}+y^{z_i}+d_i$ where $x,y$ are unknown random numbers with size 128 ...
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Probabilistic verification of signature schemes like RSA?

I was wondering if there were any verification algorithm in the literature that enables a "probabilistic" verification of well-known signature schemes? For RSA signature verification for example, is ...
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Brute forcing the value of m in RSA

I looked into the math behind RSA and seem to understand the basic encryption and decryption scheme. Let's say there are two parties, Alice and Bob, who wish to communicate and secure their ...
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Plain RSA with $3$ primes, find all integers $x$ so that $x$ is equal to $y$ when $y= e_K(x) = x^{b} \bmod n$

I'm using the notation from the book: Cryptography: Theory and Practice, Third Edition. I have a cryptosystem with the following information: $n = p_1 p_2 p_3$ and integer $x$ is encrypted using $y =...
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consequences of using fixed values with OAEP

With DSA / ECDSA using a fixed $k$ means the private key can be trivially easily calculated from two different signatures. To remedy this RFC6979 Deterministic Usage of the Digital Signature Algorithm ...
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What makes lattice-based cryptography quantum-resistant?

As opposed to RSA or elliptic curve cryptography?
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RSA attack with really big N? [duplicate]

N is a really big number,2466 digits in base 10,and e is 65537,I thought n might be factored,but it didn't work. N is such a big number and e is 65537,smaller than N,so how to attack it?
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How should I address message size limits in RSA encryption?

I am making an end-to-end encryption software program in Java using RSA. I am using BigIntegers and its number theory methods. (I know this is a very slow approach, but I just want to learn to the ...
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Could a quantum computer recover files from ransomware if the attacker doubly encrypted them with RSA-4096?

How would a quantum computer decrypt a file (or find the keys to such a file) if it were encrypted with standard RSA 4096 encryption, but encrypted two times with different keys? The keys are known by ...
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how to decrypt if p=q in RSA [duplicate]

p,q should be different,but if I let p = q,and encrypt the plaintext,then I can't decrypt it,so can decrypt it?
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RSA - Very big Modulus and Ciphertext

Is there a known weakness in RSA when the value of modulus (n) is very large? n = 2466 digits e = 65537 c = 2466 digits n cannot be factorized. I checked on ...
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RSA encryption, Number theory [duplicate]

In RSA algorithm we have the value of $e$ & $d$ exponent and also one of the prime numbers. My question is how to produce another prime number that is not equal to the first one and the digit of a ...
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Given a point $c$ in a field $Z_p$. Can we get another value $c^{'}$ such that $\left(c^{\prime}-c\right)$ is invertible in $Z_p$?

If we have a point in a field $c$. Can we get another value $c^{'}$ such that $\left(c^{\prime}-c\right)$ is invertible in $Z_p$ ?
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Asymmetric keys (e.g. RSA) must be so much longer than symmetric keys (e.g. AES). Why? [duplicate]

I have been reading that RSA has to do with math (prime numbers), while symmetric key encryption deals with blocks of data and modifying the blocks with replacements and remappings, but I still don't ...
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Efficient attack on RSA with known padding scheme and public key

I am having some trouble with an assignment problem. I hope I can get some guidance here. The question provides us with a public key, $N$ and the padding scheme. This is the padding scheme "Assume ...
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Finding the period of a function with a single output qubit - impact on RSA

In this paper,May and Schlieper claim that one can find the period of a function $f()$ by embedding $h \circ f = h(f(x))$ for input $x$. This would have the immediate consequence of reducing the ...
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RSA vs. Super Computer vs. Quantum Computer

I know that RSA is known to be secure in the current landscape of computing, and I know that RSA is known to be broken in the world of quantum computing and cryptography. I have two questions, can ...
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How long does it take to crack RSA 1024 with a PC?

Using an Intel Core i5 CPU, how long does it take to crack RSA using a key size of 1024 bit (generated using a secure key pair generation function)? Suppose for instance that we have thousands of ...
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How to calculate RSA group signatures

RSA group/ring signatures, how are they calculated?
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Is this paper's technique for factoring RSA 2048 with noisy qubits realistic?

A paper titled How to factor 2048 bit RSA integers in 8 hours using 20 million noisy qubits has just come out which proposes a technique to factor RSA keys with moduli up to 2048 bits with a design ...
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RSA How to find the exponent ($e$) of the Public key with the values $p$ $q$ and an example are given

I'm wondering if it's possible to find the public exponent ($e$) with an example and the (rather small) values of $p$ and $q$ given. Currently the only option I found is bruteforcing this value, but ...
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RSA and possible range of $\phi(n)$

If $n = p_1 p_2$ for primes $p_1 \ne p_2$, $\phi(n)$ is $\phi(p_1)\cdot\phi(p_2)$. Does that mean that the possible range of $\phi(n)$ is somewhat narrow, that $(p_1-1) \cdot (p_2-1)$ (that is, $\phi(...
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Preferred SHA-2 hash algorithm for MGF1 in RSA

Does it make any difference to the security and efficiency if we use SHA-256 or SHA-512 for the Mask Generation Function MGF1 that generates the masking / padding within the OAEP encryption scheme and ...
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Generate a per data shared secret vs per session

I have read about SSL that they persist the shared-secret for the entire session. However, someone in stackoverflow suggested a way of generating a shared secret for each data to send and then send ...
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Why is lcm(n) used now instead of $\varphi(n)$ in RSA? [duplicate]

I know that lcm(n) or Carmichael's totient function $\lambda(n)$ is now used instead of $\varphi(n)$ or Euler's totient function to generate the public key in RSA encryption? Why is this so? Are there ...