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Questions tagged [stream-cipher]

A stream cipher is an encryption algorithm which encrypts arbitrary length plaintext, using a key. Some stream ciphers generate a keystream from only the key, which is then XOR-combined with the plain text, others feed back plaintext or ciphertext into the algorithm to create the keystream.

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Does the bias in RC4 drop asymptotically further in the keystream?

It's well-known that the RC4 keystream has significant biases that become less prominent later in the keystream. The most severe bias is in the second byte, which has a 128-1 bias towards zero. Other ...
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Why does chacha20 not use bitwise not?

Right now chacha20 and blake use constants in order to eliminate fixpoints. As far as I know however inserting a bitwise not every $n$ rounds should eliminate this ...
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Why Block Ciphers

I​ fail to understand what block ciphers can do that stream ciphers cannot. Also aren't they construct able from one another. prg(stream cipher) -> prf -> prp(block cipher) Any practical example ...
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Why is this Trivium implementation working bytewise instead of bitwise?

I am currently looking into a Trivium implementation available in the FELICS framework. Parameters of the Trivium stream cipher: Key size: 80 bit IV size: 80 bit State size: 288 bit The Trivium ...
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Safely using ciphers that take small key sizes

Is it feasible to use triple encryption for block ciphers with the maximum keysize being the only significant security issue? I mean $C = E_{k_1}(E_{k_2}(E_{k_3}(P)))$ and $P = D_{k_1}(D_{k_2}(D_{k_3}(...
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How secure is $\operatorname{AES256}_{\operatorname{ECB}}(\operatorname{ChaCha20}(\text{plaintext}))$?

Suppose I encrypt a bytestream using ChaCha20, and then encrypt the resulting ciphertext using AES in ECB mode. How secure is the combination?
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A confusion about linear span of modified de Bruijn sequence

Recently i'm reading "Cryptographically Strong de Bruijn Sequences with Large Periods" . In the section 2 2.1 Basic Definitions and Properties , property 1 says ...
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Encrypt/Cipher and Decrypt/Decipher a string with a secret

In developing an app I have a simple use case in where I want to encrypt/cipher a string (it could also be a couple of bytes because it's essentially just an IP-Address). On the output I think it ...
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Does varying ChaCha rounds add any security?

This paper introduces 'Freestyle' a randomized, and variable round version of the ChaCha cipher. It uses the concept of hash based halting condition, where a decryption attempt with an incorrect key ...
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Brute force attack multiple stream cipher

Assume that a scheme used to secure a specific system $Π=(Gen,Enc,Dec)$ which is thought have indistinguishable multiple encryption in the presence of an eavesdropper. For any adversary $A$ that can ...
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How to generate initial vectors during DPA attack on stream cipher in real life?

I was trying to understand the procedure of the DPA attack on Stream cipher (like Mickey-128). I learned that, the attacker need to build hypothetical power consumption matrix with different initial ...
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1st round attack on rc4

I'm trying to implement the 1st round attack on RC4 stream cipher according to Attacks on the RC4 stream cipher. For now I am interested in section 4.2 Attack on other key bytes. It works really fine ...
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Linear approximattion of $(x+y) \bmod 2^n$ in FSM of SNOW 2.0 where $x,y$ in $F_{2}^n$

I would like to understand the linear approximation of $(x+y) \bmod 2^n$ by linear masking method in the paper refereed ""Improved Linear Distinguis'hers for SNOW 2.0" by Kaisa Nyberg and Johan Wall´...
Subrata Nandi's user avatar
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Design of SIMD-implemented cipher

Design of efficient of block ciphers needs consideration of many factors such as register size. i found that some ciphers can be SIMD implemented such as TWINE , SM4 , chacha20 ,SPIX ,and others. ...
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What happens in the MonkeyWrap-Algorithm of KetjeV2 if the input is a single block?

I am currently implementing KetjeV2 in VHDL. I have a question concerning the MonkeyWrap-Algorithm that is used in KetjeV2. The function $wrap(A, B, l)$ is supposed to work as shown below, where $A$ ...
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Known Plaintext Attack A5/2

I am trying to understand the non-optimized known plaintext attack on A5/2 from Barkan, Bikan and Keller. I don't understand the construction of the equation system: $$S_{R4_1} * S_1 = k$$ Where $S$ ...
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What is a LFSR?

I was reading "serious Cryptography" by Jean-Philippe Aumasson,and when coming to Feedback Shift Registers,I didn't understand what role Polynomials play in the feedback function, does it ...
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Extended-Chacha20

Research paper: "Extended-Chacha20 Stream Cipher With Enhanced Quarter Round Function" The initial matrix is 6x6, but what are the exact inputs for each index, in other words, how will you ...
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Is this transposition cipher unbreakable?

Given a password as a seed for a Psuedo Random number generator and Fisher Yates Algorithm to shuffle bytes of a string to random places like Hello World to ...
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Physical meaning of Negligible and Non-Negligible Functions

I've been itching my head over this for a while despite going through the queries related to the topic. Can someone explain me negligible and non-negligible function in a concise way? As of my naive ...
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No decryption algorithm for Hummingbird-2?

I stumbled upon hummingbird-2 encryption algorithm when I was looking for a lightweight encryption module that can be used in resorce-restrained environments like Network-on-Chips. A problem I faced ...
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xChaCha20 Block Keys for Poly1305

So xChaCha20 has a nonce size large enough to safely use a random nonce with the same key. Poly1305 generally uses the first block of the cipher's output to generate its nonce. For xChaCha20 it would ...
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What is the best way to save ChaCha20 Nonce in Cipher-Image BMP file?

I have a question about ChaCha20. As far as I know ChaCha20 is a cipher algorithm that uses 4 inputs: Key (secret) Constant (not secret) Block Number/Counter (keystream block number) Nonce (random ...
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Serious Cryptography by Jean-Philippe Aumasson - Chapter 5 Stream Ciphers - Attacking Salsa20/8 - Page 100 Last Paragraph

I'm currently reading "Serious Cryptography - A Practical Introduction to Modern Encryption" written by "Jean-Philippe Aumasson" published by NoStarch in 2018. In "Chapter 5 ...
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How does a pseudorandom generator produce a similar distribution to $U_{n}$?

According to Wikipedia, a function ${\displaystyle G:\{0,1\}^{\ell }\to \{0,1\}^{n}}$ with ${\displaystyle \ell < n}$ is a pseudorandom generator against $\mathcal {A}$ with bias $\epsilon$ if, ...
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Would a key recovery attack on ChaCha's keystream would be made more secure with an AONT?

To be clear I'm well aware that ChaCha doesn't need to be "improved". Also, I have no intentions or misguided ideas about trying to "improve" it. My question is hypothetical, and ...
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Usage of block and stream ciphers

I see that in many applications stream ciphers are common than block cipher - whether is Salsa20, AES-GCM, etc. In which cases would a stream cipher be preferred over a block cipher and vice versa? ...
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Should you pad messages encrypted with stream ciphers?

Should you pad messages encrypted with stream ciphers? The obvious answer seems to be yes, right? It obviously leaks the exact length of the plaintext. Consider a situation where an adversary knows a ...
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Can Trivium ciphertext be decrypted by an adversary if the key is known, but the IV is not?

Suppose that the adversary is able to recover the key of Trivium cipher. But the associated IV is unknown to him. Will he be able to decrypt the ciphertexts without any complexity?
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Are there any state of the art crypanalysis tools for stream cipher

I am new to cryptanalysis and interested in knowing cryptanalysis tools (black boxing or white boxing) for (not any specific) stream ciphers in general sense. Scenario: I am given an assignment to ...
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Can we use the same frame counter in A5/2

Let we have three encoded messages with length $3*456$ bits in A5/2 encryption. Can we use the same frame counter in the encryption process or we must use different? (E.g. this because in the below ...
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Circular Security - Encrypting the key with the key

I know this isn't the best practice, but what if I took a cheap/fast 128-bit stream cipher (assuming both the key and the stream blocks are 128 bits) and mixed in the plainkey with the plaintext (let'...
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Perfect Forward Secrecy Stream Cipher based on Block Cipher

I'm thinking about ways to encrypt an endless stream of data (e.g. a video or audio feed) in a way, where a compromise of the current internal state of the encryption (e.g. a RAM dump) does not ...
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MULalpha and DIValpha operations in SNOW 3G

I'm not able to appreciate the importance of mul alpha and div alpha operations in feedback polynomial of LFSR in SNOW 3G. What problems or weakness do they help in mitigating and how ?
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berlekamp massey feedback polynomial

I have a couple of polynomials to find. Can anybody guide me with the steps to find the feedback polynomial using berlekamp massey's algorithm. Example: Key fragment: 10100100001001101001011 seed: ...
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Why does the Content Scrambling System have two different length LFSRs

CSS uses two LFSRs of length 17 and 25. If we have two periodic functions $f(t)$ and $g(t)$ and consider the function $h(t) = (f(t), g(t))$, then $h$ will have period $pq/\gcd(p, q)$ where $p$ and $q$...
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What is the attack complexity if two stream ciphers are connected in cascade?

What is the attack complexity when Grain-128 and Trivium are cascaded? Is it 2^(256 + 128) since internal state of Grain is 256 bits and assuming that IV is unknown before encryption?
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How does the Chop Chop attack effect TKIP?

I know that chop chop attack is because of WEP's insecure checksum mechanism that is CRC32. As TKIP uses MIC along with CRC32 which just makes an attacker to wait for 60 sec upon two mismatch MIC ...
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How can we efficiently resync a stream cipher

If we have a stream cipher and the key but have lost a significant part of the beginning of the cipher stream of unknown length. Obviously we can add syncing information outside but I was wondering ...
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Find the initial state of LFSR with n non-consecutive output bits

Let's say I have (e.g.) $32$ output bits of an $128$ bit LFSR whose period length is $2^{128} - 1$. Those output bits are chosen arbitrarily, so I do not have any consecutive bits. Let us call the ...
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How to provide mathematical proof of the security of a stream cipher against known attacks?

Suppose a person has invented a stream cipher and he/she wants to get it published. I have a few questions: In addition to providing detailed description of the algorithm, how would he/she give ...
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Reykeyed AES in CTR mode as a stream cipher

Suppose one uses AES in CTR mode to generate a keystream, but every $l$ bytes the $n$ bits that would follow are used as a new AES key. Assuming that AES is a secure PRP: Is this a secure stream ...
Demi's user avatar
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Symmetric stream cipher, is it known?

I am thinking on a simple symmetric stream cipher. My first idea is the following: The key is a set of array of random bytes ($\underline{k}_1$ ... $\underline{k}_n$), whose length is $l_1$, $l_2$, .....
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Resynchronizing brute-force attack against stream ciphers

There is a stream cipher without any known cryptographic weaknesses. The attacker knows parts of the key so she can reduce the key-space to a size that can be practically brute-forced. However the ...
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Is known plaintext on Zipcrypto still possible using BK94 algorithm?

In my recent tests both pkcrack and bkcrack are no longer working, maybe it's my PC. I have zipped pkcrack.exe and chose compression level as store on both ...
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Exposing the vulnerability of CTR mode of operation

In the CTR mode of operation, the plaintext block is treated as a stream cipher, where each byte of the plaintext gets XOR-ed with each byte of the key (which is generated using a nonce and a counter) ...
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Achieving sub-block non-malleability

I have a noisy one-way communication channel where data is sent as a series of words of width n bits. Assume n is a constant roughly in the range of 16...48. I don't want bit errors in one word to ...
Stephan Walter's user avatar
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Security of the trivium stream cipher

So I've been trying to implement a Non-Deterministic RBG based on randomness polling from non-hardware sources (nothing novel, just a side-project). Since collecting entropy and further conditioning ...
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Is my domain separation in stream cipher and MAC accepted?

I would like to implement domain separation in encryption/decryption along with MAC. The encryption algorithms consists of XChaCha20,XSalsa20,SM4 From China and MAC algorithms consist of HMAC-SHA512 ...
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Attack against stream cipher (LFSR with ASCII)

I'm reading Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl. In chapter 2 (Stream Ciphers) there's a question that goes like this: Assume we have a stream cipher whose period is quite short....
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