Questions tagged [symmetric]

Symmetric cryptosystems assume two communicating entities share a pre-established secret key.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
-1
votes
0answers
15 views

Implementing ChaCha20 in Rust, encrypted output isn't matching test vector, why? [migrated]

I'm trying to implement ChaCha20 from RFC 7539 For some reason my chacha20_encrypt function's output isn't the same as expected. And I'm not quite sure what I'm ...
0
votes
4answers
860 views

Why do one-time pads not provide message authentication?

It is often said that one-time pads do not provide message authentication. But, if you and I have a one-time symmetric key, and I send you a message, and it is not complete gibberish, is that itself ...
3
votes
2answers
637 views

Is it possible to identify a Serpent encryption key in memory?

It has been shown that AES keys that are in use can be identified in memory. This identification relies on discovering expected round keys in memory that are contained within the key schedule. My ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Extracting RC4 and 3DES keys from system memory

I have read papers [1], [2] that have presented techniques on extracting symmetric encryption keys from memory during the process of encryption. There are tools [3] that can extract AES keys from ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

Key derivation for AES-GCM using HKDF?

I have a system comprising N >1000 nodes. At each node I would like to use HKDF to derive a unique 256-bit key, Kn (for the nth node), from a pre-shared master key, K0, and a locally-generated random ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

How does gpg know what cipher algorithm is needed for decryption?

I am using gpg to make encrypt a tar.gz. My first try uses --verbose --symmetric and then the decryption is done with ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

statistical distance in symmetric-key encryption

Prove that for any symmetric-key encrytion scheme $\Pi=(Gen, Enc, Dec)$ with message space $M$ and key space $K$, there exist $m_0, m_1 \in M$ such that $\Delta(Enc(K, m_0), Enc(K, m_1))\ge 1-\frac{|K|...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Why algorithmic symmetry is important in hardware implementation?

In AES, the encryption and decryption functions ordered in a symmetric way, I mean the same order of functions are used inside the round structure of both encryption and decryption (subbytes, ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Can I change the S-box and P-box in DES?

I am a newbie to crypto and just one quick question on the s-box and p-box of DES. I understood that the s-box is where the security comes from and NSA has somehow decided how it should be filled in. ...
3
votes
2answers
72 views

Can frequency attack be successful on Vigenère cipher?

Here is my question when learning Vigenère cipher, can we perform frequency analysis attack toward this cipher? My first impression is no, because each column of its matrix has exactly 26 English ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Are slide attacks effective if the primitive is sandwiched? And key schedule vs. Even-Mansour

Suppose you have a cryptographic permutation consisting of identical rounds, that makes it vulnerable to a slide attack. But if you sandwich it between two XORs of key material. Is it still vulnerable?...
3
votes
0answers
97 views

What is the intuition behind the strength of unstructured symmetric cryptography?

Consider a single round of a cryptographic permutation, what is so special about it that lacking some bits of information that either get mixed into it as a subkey or omitted at the end (sponge ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Is a symmetric encryption key derivable using the input and the output?

I am looking for a python library for encrypting a string with a single key. I do not want the key to derivable by knowing the input and the output. I have came to ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

How do I calculate key rotation schedules?

tl;dr: How do I formulaically determine key rotation schedules for different kinds of keys and use cases? The organization I'm a part of for utilizes both symmetric and public/private key encryption ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Are there any symmetric Partial Homomorphic Encryption Schemes?

Note that I am asking specifically for Partial Homomorphic Encryption (PHE) schemes and not Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption (SHE) schemes. I believe there are several SHE schemes that are symmetric ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

How strong is XooDoo vs AES?

What is Gimli, and how does XooDoo compare to symmetric ciphers such as AES or ChaCha? I am looking at this library, called charm. Interesting paper here. I also ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Is it possible to enhance white-box cryptography security by homomorphic encryption?

Background: Let's discussed based on published symmetric white-box crypto only, such as Chow's white-box AES. I only know basic concepts/objectives of homomorphic encryption, such as PHE and FHE. ...
7
votes
2answers
577 views

When encrypting twice with two separate keys, can a single key decrypt both steps?

Is it possible that if a plaintext is encrypted first with a key, $n_1$, and then this ciphertext is again encrypted using the same algorithm but a different key, $n_2$ that the resulting ciphertext ...
1
vote
2answers
57 views

Very short block ciphers for equally-short plaintexts

I'm trying to develop an encryption technique for encrypting short phrases (such as reversibly-anonymized names) in text. The key-generation and ciphertext-representation details are fungible, but ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Authenticating without sending password to the server, and store data encrypted with password derived key on server

I am trying to think of a scheme that would allow a user to authenticate to a server, whithout sending the password to the server, and to also derive a symetric key on the client (that also never gets ...
3
votes
1answer
212 views

Are “non-mathematical” encryption algorithms comparably secure against brute force key recovery?

I recently learned about a desktop encryption application called ALKEMI, which does not use mathematical encryption according to the website, which I understand to be a misnomer, at best: The ...
3
votes
1answer
144 views

Does anyone sell a proprietary symmetric encryption alogirthm?

I know that the majority of people use standardized encryption ciphers such as AES-256, and for good reason. But what I want to know is if anyone has come across a company or organization that is ...
7
votes
1answer
148 views

Single Ciphertext which can decrypt with multiple keys

Say we have a public key system where we have 2 users, Alice, and Bob each has a public and private key. We also have a publicly available server which stores a message. I want to encrypt this ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Term for non-ARX symmetric-key cryptographic primitive design strategy

What's the term for describing designing symmetric-key cryptography primitive out of bitwise operations and shifts and rotations? The closest thing I've found is this Keccek team's page calling it ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Reversible Decryption in Symmetric Key Algorithms

I am currently learning the Internal Working of Symmetric Key Algorithms, like DES, AES, BlowFish, IDEA just to name a few. These are all quite complex Encryption alogrithms, which requires a lot of ...
3
votes
2answers
112 views

Is lattice-based cryptography relevant in symmetric cryptography?

I've seen that lattice-based cryptography works well with public key cryptography as well as cryptographic hashing algorithms, but does it apply to symmetric key cryptography?
1
vote
1answer
48 views

how are variable key sizes produced?

I am current learning the internal working of several Symmetric key Cryptographic algorithms, and came across DES and AES. DES takes in input a 64 bit key and AES-128 takes in input a 128 bit key ...
0
votes
0answers
70 views

AES encryption question

If we consider the generation of keys as $$\begin{aligned} K_0 &= E_K(IV); \\ K_{i+1} &= E_{K_i}(A) \end{aligned}$$ Where A is a block of zeroes, and the ciphertext blocks are computed as ...
2
votes
1answer
176 views

In GnuPG, what's the difference between --s2k-cipher-algo and --cipher-algo? [duplicate]

I want to change some encryption options while using GnuPG to encrypt a file symmetrically. 1) However, for choosing the cipher algorithm, GnuPG has two commands and I don't know which one to use. ...
0
votes
1answer
119 views

Best practices when encrypting a file with three different ciphers [closed]

I have some files that contain important information, so I want to encrypt them by the most secure encryption method possible. I've read countless StackExchange answers on similar questions and some ...
6
votes
2answers
252 views

Does ChaCha20/Salsa have the same Bit Strength as AES for identical key sizes?

i.e. does ChaCha20 with a 128bit key, require 2^128 attempts to brute force, as with AES-128, theoretically? Ps. notwithstanding that ChaCha is a stream cipher.
2
votes
1answer
84 views

Symmetric property of DDT of inverse function

Given a bijective function $F: \mathbb{F}_2^n \rightarrow \mathbb{F}_2^n$. The entry of the Difference Distribution Table (DDT) at row $\alpha$ and column $\beta$ is defined as $$DDT_{F}(\alpha,\...
3
votes
2answers
707 views

Symmetric Encryption in the P=NP world [duplicate]

I expected to find answers along the lines of quantum-computing insight into attacking AES; however, answers on this question aren't applicable because "Quantum computers give a quadratic speedup on a ...
4
votes
2answers
140 views

Is there a maximum amount of data which can be encrypted using a symmetric (AES256) key?

I am working on an application where we will be encrypting billions of small (< 2,000 bytes) records. Combined, we are facing many TB of data. Each record will be encrypted independently, using a ...
8
votes
3answers
620 views

Are there any symmetric cryptosystems based on computational complexity assumptions?

Are there any symmetric cryptosystems which are provably secure in the sense that there exists a reduction from their security to the hardness of some underlying hard problem such as integer ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Key rotation (or other measures) for PASETO v2 “local”

I was looking at using PASETO's v2 "local" encryption (XChaCha20-Poly1305) to implement short-lived tokens to share claims between microservices via an untrusted client. PASETO's documentation is ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Generate $4\times 4$ Sboxes with a given branch number

Say, I want to generate a lot of $4\times4$ Sboxes with linear (or differential) branch numbre of $3$. One idea is to take all the $302$ affine classes, expand each of those classes and check if any ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

How to symmetrically encrypt 64bit values?

I'm curious about an algorithm that would be good for the following scenario: 32-bit "plaintext" input, taken from a counter 32 or 64-bit "ciphertext" output It should be possible to decrypt the ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Symmetric Key Encryption with the key a seed

Would it be feasible to give two parties a seed to generate random numbers? So that when they want to send data to each other they send the correction on the random number generated? The random ...
2
votes
2answers
222 views

Is it possible to determine the symmetric encryption method used by output size?

I'm attempting to identify the method of encryption for a black-box symmetric encryptor that produces blocks of output that are 4 bytes in length (e.g. small inputs fit in 16 bytes, then 20 bytes and ...
3
votes
1answer
123 views

How does the key agreement process take place in Virgil E3Kit SDK for end to end encryption?

I'm using Virgil E3Kit SDK to implement end-to-end encryption in my App. Their E3Kit SDK is very effective and not too hard to understand, but I still don't understand how does the key agreement ...
3
votes
1answer
131 views

Zero-knowledge proof with only a ciphertext

Suppose there is a plaintext p, which is encrypted with a symmetric cipher using a key k, resulting in a ciphertext c. Bob knows both c and k, but Alice knows only c. Is there any protocol by which ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

What does it mean : “Canonical representative of Sbox is 0123468A5BCF79DE”? and How can we calculate this representative for Sbox?

In paper :Cryptographic Analysis of All 4 × 4-Bit S-Boxes Saarinen has classified $4 \times 4$ S-Boxes and defined Canonical representative for each class of S-Boxes. What does "Canonical ...
7
votes
1answer
3k views

AES: Why is it a good practice to use only the first 16 bytes of a hash for encryption?

I'd like to encrypt Text with AES/CTR and a password defined by the user in java. I already checked the internet (and stackoverflow) for answers. The most used version is to hash the user password ...
1
vote
1answer
95 views

What is the inverse function of the finite field GF($2^3$) and GF($2^4$)?

I am currently reading a paper Cryptanalysis of a Theorem Decomposing the Only Known Solution to the Big APN Problem. In this paper, they mention that they used $I$ which is the inverse of the finite ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

What does $x^{1/e}$ mean in cryptography in this open butterfly structure?

I am currently reading a research paper that introduces this thing called a butterfly structure. I am confused about the structure of the open butterfly in this paper which has the equation $H^{\...
1
vote
2answers
140 views

Reed Solomon secret sharing and as a one-time symmetric key?

Shamir's Secret Sharing is just a special case of Reed-Solomon where only one coefficient is used to store the secret instead of the entire polynomial. Sarwate however, suggests that the latter can ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Randomly initialised global counter used to encrypt the kth message with IV = IV + k mod 2^n

The use of an increasing IV is not secure for a block cipher. That is, using a random IV for the first message then IV + 1 for the second , IV + 2 for the 3rd etc. How can I construct an attack to ...
3
votes
1answer
387 views

Is there a symmetric-key algorithm which we can use for creating a signature?

I know that in the asymmetric-key algorithm the RSA signature exists but what about the symmetrical ones?
0
votes
0answers
51 views

How can a node establish pairwise shared key with other nodes using its own polynomial share together with other's public values?

A server has a symmetric bivariate polynomial $ F(x, y) = \sum_{{i,j}=0}^{t-1}a_{i,j}x^iy^j$ $\in GF(p)[X, Y] $ of degree $t-1$. For simpliciy, $ F(x, y) = a_{0,0}+a_{1,0} x+a_{0,1}y+ a_{1,1}xy$ mod ...