Questions tagged [terminology]

Questions about the meaning and proper use of specific technical terms or notation within cryptography.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
1answer
59 views

What does this Big-O notation mean based on appendix?

I am reading the following book: Introduction to Modern Cryptography Second Edition by Jonathan Katz and Yehuda Lindell. I am going through page 533 where they list what some of the notation means, ...
3
votes
3answers
125 views

Measuring entropy of a uniform distribution source

What is entropy? I do not understand it at all. One article states: When there is an equal chance for all items to appear, we have a uniform distribution. In uniform distribution the entropy is high....
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Question about hiding commitment scheme for integers

Given a generic group $\mathbb{G}$ of an unknown order (such as a $3000$-bit RSA group) and a randomly generated element $g \in \mathbb{G}$, is the commitment scheme $\mathrm{Com}(x)= g^x$ not ...
10
votes
4answers
2k views

Does a hash function necessarily need to allow arbitrary length input?

I always assumed that a hash function allows input of arbitrary length, since that's what all the hash functions I was aware of did. Wikipedia's definition of a hash function is as follows: A hash ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

What is the more accurate way of stating the correctness of a PK encryption scheme?

Is it more accurate to state that a public key encryption scheme is correct if for all $m \in M$ and $(pk, sk) \in \operatorname{Gen}(1^k)$ a. $\operatorname{Dec}_{sk}(\operatorname{Enc}_{pk}(m))=m\;$ ...
0
votes
2answers
131 views

There is Alice and there is Bob. But what is the name of the malicious user?

I know it is a kinda funny and maybe even naive question but its still security related, so I decided to ask. Bob and Alice are widely used names indicating the two end-users/parties for web protocols....
7
votes
1answer
440 views

What does it mean to be “sound”?

I've been reading this in many places and I still don't properly understand what it means to be "sound". As an example of what I am asking for: The Fiat-Shamir transfrom is sound in the ...
5
votes
4answers
217 views

What does perfect mean within perfect forward secrecy and why do some cryptographers disagree with the term?

In this blog post, Matthew Green says Forward secrecy (usually misnamed “perfect forward secrecy”)... The Wikipedia article on forward secrecy (which the same sentence links to in the blog) says ...
1
vote
2answers
377 views

Is it fair to say that MACs use a signing algorithm?

The Wikipedia page on MAC calls the algorithm that is used to generate the MAC as a signing algorithm. Is that a fair use of that term? Can we then say that HMAC-SHA-1 uses SHA-1 as the signing ...
4
votes
2answers
133 views

What is the difference between security parameter and $b$-bit security?

In a previous question, I read ... for $b$-bit security meaning $O(2^b)$ work for an attacker to break the system... While in Katz's Introduction to modern Cryptography, I read: The key-generation ...
1
vote
2answers
223 views

Difference between computationally and perfectly hiding (binding) properties

I am new to Cryptography and has a trouble of understanding the difference between perfect and computationally hiding (binding) properties of a commitment scheme. I also would like to ask what does it ...
0
votes
2answers
40 views

What is the difference between an encryption protocol and an encryption standard?

What is the difference between an encryption protocol and an encryption standard? Am I missing something here? Or are they in fact two different concepts altogether?
3
votes
2answers
138 views

Short term for “Purposely-slowed hash”

When Argon2, Balloon, scrypt, bcrypt¹, PBKDF2… are used for a password, we can call them password hash (for password storage) or password-based key derivation function (for use in encryption). But ...
5
votes
2answers
885 views

What is the difference between data compression and compression in cryptographic algorithms?

What is the differences between data compression as used in e.g. the ZIP protocol and compression as performed in cryptographic hashes? Are there common properties as well, apart from creating a ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

What does it mean exactly that an adversary can control a polynomial number of parties?

I have an intuitive idea of this, but I am not sure if I am formally interpreting it correctly. In the scenario I am considering, each party is identified by a sequence of $n$ bits and I have $2^{n}$ ...
5
votes
2answers
482 views

Meaning of the term “Key Material”

I am reading specifications from my client that focuses on the topic of security. In these specs, the term key material has appeared many times. I used Google to look for what the term means. ...
0
votes
1answer
272 views

What is the definition of dummy password?

Recently, I try to read some papers about Password Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE). I can’t understand the meaning of “dummy password .” Can someone gives a concrete definition of it. And what is ...
0
votes
2answers
348 views

is it necessary to write C=E(K,P), Can we write C=E(P,K)?

I just want to know that can we write encryption and decryption formula like $C=E(P,K)$ instead of $C=E(K,P)$
4
votes
1answer
499 views

What is Post-Compromise security exactly?

After reading these papers on Post-Compromise Security: Post Compromise Security Asynchronous Ratcheting Trees My understanding is the following: it is possible for a key-agreement protocol to ...
2
votes
2answers
119 views

Is there a term for cryptographic attacks where you can verify decryption without assuming any known structure on the plaintext?

The questions https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/1696/if-someone-breaks-encryption-how-do-they-know-theyre-successful and https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/119887/how-to-know-if-a-...
3
votes
1answer
683 views

What does “crypto_box” actually mean in libsodium and NaCl?

I cannot find what "crypto_box" actually means. In general, and in specific cases, what does "box" do? I know that libsodium is authenticated encryption, but GPG is not. "Box" makes me think the ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

Meaning of difference Δ delta

I tried to understand some crypto text but I am new to this. Does this: Let $X,X'$ be $\ell$-bit values, and $\Delta X=X\oplus X'$ means that $X$ and $X'$ have $\ell$ bits and $\Delta X=X-X'$ or ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Terminology for parties in authentication protocols

Is there a common terminology to designate parties in authentication protocols? For example, we typically use prover and verifier to designate parties with zero-knowledge proofs.
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Confused about terminology in the many flavors of security [closed]

I am learning about cryptography from diverse sources, and I have found terminology a bit confusing. In principle, I understand the difference between the symbolic model and the computational model. ...
6
votes
2answers
196 views

What does the term “differential” in “differential privacy” mean?

I'm new in Differential Privacy (DP) and I have two questions: Why do we have the term differential in differential privacy? Are The local and global differential privacy and global and local ...
6
votes
3answers
203 views

Would creating a custom human language be stronger protection than encrypting a known human language?

There are some languages that people haven't been able to read (Cretan Hieroglyphics for example). Does that mean that you can better protect data by making your own language than by encrypting an ...
1
vote
1answer
188 views

What's the difference between threshold signatures and multisignatures?

I was wondering what's the difference between threshold signatures and multisignatures. In what respects do they differ? For example, is n-out-of-n threshold signature, just a multisignature?
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Difference between Verification and Public Key for Signature Schemes

This is a semantics Question. Typically, in many asymmetric schemes, for this question specifically, digital signatures, we see that designers describe the key given to the verifier as Public Key. ...
5
votes
3answers
754 views

In laymans terms, what exactly is a “One time pad”?

Background I am an undergraduate novice learning about cryptography. Recently my professor introduced us to the concept of a "One time pad". According to my professor: A one time pad is a cipher ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Question about terminology of public key encryption in practice

I am asking myself the following question: Say Alice sets all things up so that she is the reciever in an RSA-system. What do you call this "network" now? I hope it is clear what I mean. I ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Termonology help: What is using AEAD without encrypting data called?

I'm using ChaCha20-Poly1305 in a "full AEAD" mode, where a payload of data is encrypted and a block of unencrypted "additional data" is secured as well. However, I'd like to also occasionally use the ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

Is a bit string pseudorandom if it starts with predictable bits?

Assume we have $k = n + m$ bits string $S$ where the first $n$ bits are predictable, and the last $m$ bits are pseudorandom (the HMAC of the first $n$ bits + IV). Can we say $S$ is a pseudorandom ...
2
votes
3answers
215 views

Is obfuscation considered a cryptographic primitive?

The general definition of obfuscation is the process of obscuring a message (not necessarily source code). There is a "rigorous" method for obfuscation (indistinguishability obfuscation, ...
2
votes
1answer
115 views

What is Regular Digest/Hash Function

I was reading a paper, Practical and Provably-Secure Commitment Schemes from Collision-Free Hashing where there was a reference to message digests being 'regular' Here, MD is a message digest. I've ...
5
votes
1answer
189 views

In cryptography, what is “fractionation”?

I understand how fractionation is used in the straddling keyboard, which is an important feature of the VIC Cipher, and in the Polybius Square of the ADFGVX cipher, but I am not sure how to describe ...
3
votes
3answers
295 views

Why is “key-rotation” called key-rotation?

The word "rotate" in respect to "key-rotation" has connotations of looping/repeating variable values like a rotor, but as far as I can tell there isn't a single definition available for "key-rotation" ...
4
votes
2answers
762 views

zk-SNARKs vs. Zk-STARKs vs. Bulletproofs: definitions

I have become quite familiar with Bulletproofs the last few months. Bulletproofs is the name given to a zero-knowledge proof system for arithmetic circuits, by Benedikt Bünz et al. It is a specific ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Definition of diffusion matrix

I've been studying this article and since I'm not studying cryptography in English and it is not my native language, I don't understand some of the terminology. More precisely: what are diffusion ...
2
votes
1answer
174 views

What is Reverse Trapdoor Function?

In wikipedia on Digital_signature: but rather, the message to be signed is first hashed to produce a short digest, that is then padded to larger width comparable to N, then signed with the ...
14
votes
7answers
6k views

Can I say “I have encrypted something” if I hash something?

As I understand it, a hashing algorithm is some kind of encryption, just a specific kind of it. So is it wrong to say "I encrypted this value." if I "only" hash it? I understand that it gives the ...
3
votes
0answers
63 views

What is labeled program

I've been studying homomorphic encryption. From their instantiations, i read Labeled Homomorphic Encryption (labHE) scheme 1 where it combines the notion of homomorphic encryption with labeled ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

DLP instances for given number of congruences

Let $S$ be the set of $k$ congruences of the type $g_{i}^{x_i} \equiv h_i \pmod{n_i}, \quad \forall i,1\leq i \leq k$ What would be the best way to describe such set $S$ with a term in literature. ...
1
vote
2answers
44 views

What is the difference between “asymmetric key cryptosystem” “asymmetric cryptography” terminology?

What is the difference between "asymmetric cryptography" and "asymmetric key cryptosystem" terminology?
6
votes
2answers
344 views

The definition and origin of Schnorr groups?

Wanting to write something on Schnorr groups in a publication I realised how hard it is to find anything citable about them on the internet. Who can help me with the following questions? What (and ...
3
votes
2answers
93 views

What's the meaning of probabilities in differential privacy formula?

I don't understand what does it mean by "The probability is taken is over the coin tosses of K." Does it mean, the probability distribution is generated based on exactly same data but only the ...
5
votes
2answers
884 views

What is cryptographic sealing?

While revising my CAdES library I encountered some "sealing issue" in digital signatures. The Win SDK signtool.exe has a /seal ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Asymmetric Encryption - How is the Public Key Being Shared?

I've been reading up on the relationship between private keys and public keys (as well as hashing), and I watched a few videos, but I am still a bit confused. I don't have a programming background, ...
1
vote
1answer
93 views

Difference between hash functions and algorithms?

Wikipedia lists "Hash function algorithms" within the "Hash function" page. I'm wondering what are the differences and if I can use the terms "hash(ing?) algorithm" and "hash function" interchangeably....
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Term for non-ARX symmetric-key cryptographic primitive design strategy

What's the term for describing designing symmetric-key cryptography primitive out of bitwise operations and shifts and rotations? The closest thing I've found is this Keccek team's page calling it ...
2
votes
4answers
354 views

How to use “mod” related words in technical paper?

Modular reduction is a widely used arithmetic operation. I found many "mod" related words such as modulo modulus modular Can anyone explains the difference among these words? Please give examples ...

1
2 3 4 5 6