Questions tagged [terminology]

Questions about the meaning and proper use of specific technical terms or notation within cryptography.

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48 views

Is there a term for cryptographic attacks where you can verify decryption without assuming any known structure on the plaintext?

The questions https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/1696/if-someone-breaks-encryption-how-do-they-know-theyre-successful and https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/119887/how-to-know-if-a-...
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What does “crypto_box” actually mean in libsodium and NaCl?

I cannot find what "crypto_box" actually means. In general, and in specific cases, what does "box" do? I know that libsodium is authenticated encryption, but GPG is not. "Box" makes me think the ...
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45 views

Meaning of difference Δ delta

I tried to understand some crypto text but I am new to this. Does this: Let $X,X'$ be $\ell$-bit values, and $\Delta X=X\oplus X'$ means that $X$ and $X'$ have $\ell$ bits and $\Delta X=X-X'$ or ...
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Terminology for parties in authentication protocols

Is there a common terminology to designate parties in authentication protocols? For example, we typically use prover and verifier to designate parties with zero-knowledge proofs.
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Confused about terminology in the many flavors of security [closed]

I am learning about cryptography from diverse sources, and I have found terminology a bit confusing. In principle, I understand the difference between the symbolic model and the computational model. ...
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2answers
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What does the term “differential” in “differential privacy” mean?

I'm new in Differential Privacy (DP) and I have two questions: Why do we have the term differential in differential privacy? Are The local and global differential privacy and global and local ...
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178 views

Would creating a custom human language be stronger protection than encrypting a known human language?

There are some languages that people haven't been able to read (Cretan Hieroglyphics for example). Does that mean that you can better protect data by making your own language than by encrypting an ...
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1answer
48 views

What's the difference between threshold signatures and multisignatures?

I was wondering what's the difference between threshold signatures and multisignatures. In what respects do they differ? For example, is n-out-of-n threshold signature, just a multisignature?
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Difference between Verification and Public Key for Signature Schemes

This is a semantics Question. Typically, in many asymmetric schemes, for this question specifically, digital signatures, we see that designers describe the key given to the verifier as Public Key. ...
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618 views

In laymans terms, what exactly is a “One time pad”?

Background I am an undergraduate novice learning about cryptography. Recently my professor introduced us to the concept of a "One time pad". According to my professor: A one time pad is a cipher ...
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Question about terminology of public key encryption in practice

I am asking myself the following question: Say Alice sets all things up so that she is the reciever in an RSA-system. What do you call this "network" now? I hope it is clear what I mean. I ...
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1answer
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Termonology help: What is using AEAD without encrypting data called?

I'm using ChaCha20-Poly1305 in a "full AEAD" mode, where a payload of data is encrypted and a block of unencrypted "additional data" is secured as well. However, I'd like to also occasionally use the ...
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1answer
68 views

Is a bit string pseudorandom if it starts with predictable bits?

Assume we have $k = n + m$ bits string $S$ where the first $n$ bits are predictable, and the last $m$ bits are pseudorandom (the HMAC of the first $n$ bits + IV). Can we say $S$ is a pseudorandom ...
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Is obfuscation considered a cryptographic primitive?

The general definition of obfuscation is the process of obscuring a message (not necessarily source code). There is a "rigorous" method for obfuscation (indistinguishability obfuscation, ...
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1answer
85 views

What is Regular Digest/Hash Function

I was reading a paper, Practical and Provably-Secure Commitment Schemes from Collision-Free Hashing where there was a reference to message digests being 'regular' Here, MD is a message digest. I've ...
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1answer
135 views

In cryptography, what is “fractionation”?

I understand how fractionation is used in the straddling keyboard, which is an important feature of the VIC Cipher, and in the Polybius Square of the ADFGVX cipher, but I am not sure how to describe ...
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3answers
145 views

Why is “key-rotation” called key-rotation?

The word "rotate" in respect to "key-rotation" has connotations of looping/repeating variable values like a rotor, but as far as I can tell there isn't a single definition available for "key-rotation" ...
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1answer
216 views

zk-SNARKs vs. Zk-STARKs vs. Bulletproofs: definitions

I have become quite familiar with Bulletproofs the last few months. Bulletproofs is the name given to a zero-knowledge proof system for arithmetic circuits, by Benedikt Bünz et al. It is a specific ...
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1answer
50 views

Definition of diffusion matrix

I've been studying this article and since I'm not studying cryptography in English and it is not my native language, I don't understand some of the terminology. More precisely: what are diffusion ...
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1answer
114 views

What is Reverse Trapdoor Function?

In wikipedia on Digital_signature: but rather, the message to be signed is first hashed to produce a short digest, that is then padded to larger width comparable to N, then signed with the ...
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7answers
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Can I say “I have encrypted something” if I hash something?

As I understand it, a hashing algorithm is some kind of encryption, just a specific kind of it. So is it wrong to say "I encrypted this value." if I "only" hash it? I understand that it gives the ...
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What is labeled program

I've been studying homomorphic encryption. From their instantiations, i read Labeled Homomorphic Encryption (labHE) scheme 1 where it combines the notion of homomorphic encryption with labeled ...
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DLP instances for given number of congruences

Let $S$ be the set of $k$ congruences of the type $g_{i}^{x_i} \equiv h_i \pmod{n_i}, \quad \forall i,1\leq i \leq k$ What would be the best way to describe such set $S$ with a term in literature. ...
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What is the difference between “asymmetric key cryptosystem” “asymmetric cryptography” terminology?

What is the difference between "asymmetric cryptography" and "asymmetric key cryptosystem" terminology?
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The definition and origin of Schnorr groups?

Wanting to write something on Schnorr groups in a publication I realised how hard it is to find anything citable about them on the internet. Who can help me with the following questions? What (and ...
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2answers
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What's the meaning of probabilities in differential privacy formula?

I don't understand what does it mean by "The probability is taken is over the coin tosses of K." Does it mean, the probability distribution is generated based on exactly same data but only the ...
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What is cryptographic sealing?

While revising my CAdES library I encountered some "sealing issue" in digital signatures. The Win SDK signtool.exe has a /seal ...
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1answer
80 views

Asymmetric Encryption - How is the Public Key Being Shared?

I've been reading up on the relationship between private keys and public keys (as well as hashing), and I watched a few videos, but I am still a bit confused. I don't have a programming background, ...
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1answer
82 views

Difference between hash functions and algorithms?

Wikipedia lists "Hash function algorithms" within the "Hash function" page. I'm wondering what are the differences and if I can use the terms "hash(ing?) algorithm" and "hash function" interchangeably....
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34 views

Term for non-ARX symmetric-key cryptographic primitive design strategy

What's the term for describing designing symmetric-key cryptography primitive out of bitwise operations and shifts and rotations? The closest thing I've found is this Keccek team's page calling it ...
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4answers
317 views

How to use “mod” related words in technical paper?

Modular reduction is a widely used arithmetic operation. I found many "mod" related words such as modulo modulus modular Can anyone explains the difference among these words? Please give examples ...
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2answers
205 views

Why ``adversary'' and ``challenger'' and what are typical roles of those?

I'm confused with words adversary and challenger, that are used in proof of security of some cryptosystems. For example, adversary and challenger appear in the formal definitions of IND-CPA, IND-CCA, ...
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3answers
90 views

“Work factor” and “iteration count” nomenclature in adaptive functions

In adaptive functions like PBKDF2 / bcrypt I often read people refer to "iteration count" and others refer to "work factor", and they seem to be used interchangeably (even though they're not - the ...
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2answers
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What does it mean by 'cost' in CS?

I've seen the word 'cost' being used several times in describing algorithms e.g. algorithm A costs more to compute than algorithm B. What does 'cost' mean in this sense?
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471 views

Are ephemeral keys symmetric or asymmetric? [closed]

My question is: Are ephemeral keys symmetric or asymmetric? If symmetric, can ephemeral keys be created based on a (UserID || nonce)?
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What is the origin of the phrase “Don't roll your own crypto”?

The phrase is well-known and widely used, it is often attributed to Bruce Schneier and is indeed relevant to his Schneier's Law. However, I wasn't able to find this specific wording among Schneier's ...
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1answer
72 views

Are multi move proof protocols still “sigma protocols”?

Conventionally, sigma protocols are defined as being a three-move protocol (1. commit, 2. challenge, 3. response). Reading papers like "Bulletproofs" (Bunz, Bootle, Boneh et al., 2018), it feels like ...
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1answer
780 views

Mutual Index of Coincidence

I can't seem to find a simple explanation of Mutual Index of Coincidence. I am finding explanations of Mutual Index of Coincidence not Index of Coincidence. I don't understand what the formula below ...
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1answer
1k views

Difference between decryption and deciphering?

Is there a technical difference between decryption and deciphering?
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2answers
296 views

Does classifying an integer as a discrete log require it be part of a multiplicative group?

This question is not a question about the discrete log problem, the generalized discrete log problem, or an additive group. The confusion is whether any integer can be considered a discrete log or ...
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3answers
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Why was the term “discrete” used in discrete logarithm?

Is there anything especially "discrete" about a discrete logarithm? This is not a question of what is a discrete logarithm or why the discrete logarithm problem is an "intractable problem" given ...
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2answers
312 views

What do NM-CPA, and NM-CCA mean?

When I've been researching authenticated encryption, the following terms keep showing up: NM-CPA NM-CCA ....without any definition as to what they mean. I've tried searching the web for their ...
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1answer
70 views

How should one refer to the smallest remainders generated by a modulus within DH or DLP?

It's my understanding that the integer base and exponents chosen to create the initial public keys in DH are from the remainders of a modulus. For example, if the value of the modulus is $N=11$, a ...
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994 views

What is meaning of the term “language”?

I don't have much formal background, and I could not find a suitable explanation for this after searching on Google/Wikipedia. What is the meaning of the term "language" as used in cryptographic ...
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507 views

Does GCM (or GHASH) only provide 64-bit security against forgeries?

In a recent comment a doubt was voiced about my answer, which claims GCM to requires $2^{128}$ for a successful forgery. The doubt was that the square root needs to be taken meaning the security would ...
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1answer
84 views

The meaning of formal and semi-formal in cryptography

The question is about "formal" analysis, proofs, etc... What is a correct definition of a formal proof, or a formal analysis? Is there a good way and a bad way to formally prove something. What is the ...
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176 views

Terminology: Is a block cipher in counter mode still considered a block cipher or is it classified as a stream cipher?

I'm confused about what terminology to use. I see people referring to such a cipher-MOO combination using both terms.
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What is a related key?

We talk of related keys and related key attacks, but what is a 'related key'? So in three related parts:- How can one key be related to another key? Is there a metric describing the degree of ...
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What is meant by the term “hostile environment”? [closed]

I come across many time a term called ”hostile environment” in cryptographic literature. What does “hostile” mean exactly? Is it unknown third parties which are responsible for handling and routing ...
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1answer
475 views

What is an accurate definition for a 'Monoalphabetic substitution cipher' and why does it provide a poor level of security

From my research online, I am confused about the difference between a 'monoalphabetic cipher' and 'monoalphabetic substitution cipher'. However, I have got my answer from the websites Kifanga and ...

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