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Questions tagged [terminology]

Questions about the meaning and proper use of specific technical terms or notation within cryptography.

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Would sending audio fragments over a phone call be considered a form of cryptology?

I have been wondering if sending audio fragments over a phone call would be considered a form of cryptology. Let's say that you own two mobile phones and say that one of your phones is on the Verizon ...
user57467's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
258 views

RFCs & IANA specs about Ed25519 inaccurate?

While designing a crypto system based on existing standards and specifications i find myself questioning some of the accuracy in the current RFC-8037 and IANA specs around Edwards curves, 25519 and ...
ehanoc's user avatar
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4 votes
4 answers
257 views

Average- and worst-case complexity

The terms "average-case", "worst-case" hardness are quite confusing. What do they mean when they say certain problems (like lattices) have an average-case to worst-case ...
user1035648's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
98 views

What is "auxiliary information" in context of cryptographic accumulators?

I have been reading a paper about accumulators (title of the paper: "Universal Accumulators with Efficient Nonmembership Proofs"). It mentions "auxiliary information" about a ...
Abol_Fa's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
115 views

"Supported groups" in RFC 8446 (TLS 1.3)

What is meant by "supported groups" in the section 4.2.7. "Supported Groups" of RFC 8446: /* Finite Field Groups (DHE) */ ffdhe2048(0x0100), ffdhe3072(0x0101), etc: Is the digits - ...
LUN's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
43 views

Plain Text and Cipher Text terminology when double encrypting?

Say I have some message like "Hello World" that I want to encrypt, I get that Hello World is the Plain Text and the output from the encryption is called Cipher Text. But, let's say I want to ...
millie's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
74 views

What is the modern terminology for a digital signature scheme with a shadow?

In Guillou and Quisquater's 1988 paper "A 'Paradoxical' Indentity-Based Signature Scheme Resulting from Zero-Knowledge", they say that an RSA identity has a shadow and go on to state that ...
Ethan Heilman's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
68 views

Correct terminology for ECC in PGP

These days I'm generating some PGP keypairs, and I'm struggling to understand the correct terminology behind ECC keys. Moslty in the differences between ed25519/<...
Pierre's user avatar
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2 answers
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What is the difference between Ring Signature and Multi User Designated Verifier Signature?

I was going through some text related to designated verifier signature (DVS). I came to know that DVS can be thought of as the two party ring signature. Can we extend this concept and say that ring ...
Shweta Aggrawal's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
85 views

UOWHF vs CRHF / Relevance of UOWHF

What's the difference between UOWHF and CRHF and why are UOWHF useful? As far as I understand, Universal One-Way Hash Functions are an alternative to CRHF. While for CRHF it is hard, given randomly ...
sbluff's user avatar
  • 103
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0 answers
32 views

Mitigating side-channel attacks: which is better? Masked cryptography or differential power analysis-resistant cryptography?

As part of mitigating side-channel attacks, which is the most efficient? Masked cryptography or differential power analysis-resistant cryptography? Or are they both similar?
Nathan Aw's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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Does Quantum Key Distribution (aka: QKD) qualify as "Cryptography"?

This may be a polemic question, but since I did read the rules of the site and "terms and definitions" appear to be legitimate subjects, I want to raise this because I find this interesting, ...
Amit's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
76 views

Significance of theoretical weaknesses?

What is the significance of theoretical weaknesses? Any real life incident where a theoretical weakness was ignored and later it compromised the system? Whats the dividing line between theoretical and ...
crypt's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
173 views

How is the Unix / PostgreSQL crypt function a trapdoor function?

I am looking at this in the context of password hashing in PostgreSQL, specifically, the crypt function of the pgcrypto ...
dakini's user avatar
  • 133
1 vote
1 answer
112 views

What exactly is a "pass" when talking about hashing, ciphers and MAC algorithms?

I was very surprised when I said that hashing the same data twice was "double pass" and a comment came in that this wasn't the case if the hashing could be performed in parallel. This would ...
Maarten Bodewes's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
43 views

What qualifies as a key?

For my own project and the fun of it I have created an algorithm that turns plain text into cipher by interacting between entered text and a given password. My question is, in this instance, does the ...
vquest's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
3k views

What does puncturing in cryptography mean

While I was reading the documentation for the cryptocode $\LaTeX$ package I stumbled across the "primitive" called puncturing in subsection 2.12. This was the first time I read about this &...
Titanlord's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Use of term "Commitment"

As an amateur, my first encounter with commitments has been in the form of an hash of the committed value, then I have learnt about seeding the hash as blinding technique. Going on I have discovered ...
baro77's user avatar
  • 680
6 votes
3 answers
3k views

What do you call a random number that affects the calculation, but not the result?

This is about the same random ladder algorithm as my previous question. It computes f(g,n,r)=n*g or g^n (depending on the group notation), where g is a generator of a group. Suppose n=5882353. This ...
Pierre Abbat's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
105 views

Randomized encodings and Indistinguishability obfuscation

I want to understand the difference between randomized encodings and indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). Are randomized encodings a special type of iO?
BlackHat18's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
1k views

What does the modulo plus minus mean?

May someone please explain what the notations in the image means? In general, for a modulus $q$, what does the $+$ in here $\bmod^+ q$ indicate? What does the $\pm$ in here $\bmod^\pm q$ mean?
user15651's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
284 views

What does "key version" refer to when talking about AES 128 in NXP's datasheet?

I'm going through the datasheet for MifareDesfire ICs. Throughout the document, there are mentions of "key version". For example, section 9.3 of the document states: Hardware AES using 128-...
Tung's user avatar
  • 143
2 votes
1 answer
69 views

Is Order-preserving encryption part of the functional encryption family?

I believe I know quite well OPE and ORE, but I'm unsure about what family to put them in. Can we consider them as a sub family of Functional Encryption, like Attribute Based Encryption or Inner ...
Goupil's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
283 views

Differences between algorithms, ciphers, primitives and functionalities

Working in security, I often hear terms such as algorithms, ciphers, primitives and functionalities. but as cryptography is not my field, they seem to be used interchangeably. What are the differences ...
SaltyChips's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
583 views

Probability conventions in cryptography

I am working on Victor Shoup's tutorial on game-based security proof and want to figure out some notions from the perspective of probability theory. Consider the following PRF advantage defined on ...
X. G.'s user avatar
  • 414
2 votes
1 answer
214 views

About the definition of distinguishing advantage and computational indistinguishability

Given a polynomial-time adversary $A$ with binary output, the distinguishing advantage of $A$ with respect two games $G, H$ is defined as $$ \newcommand{\adv}{\mathbf{Adv}} \newcommand{\pr}{\mathbf{Pr}...
AYun's user avatar
  • 801
2 votes
1 answer
97 views

What is the name of this kind of logic diagram?

I want to read this kind of diagram, but I haven't found the name of this, or somewhere I can find a legend of symbols used, or a tutorial to learn reading this... I've googled this for over an hour, ...
Fabien's user avatar
  • 23
0 votes
0 answers
52 views

How is ECB secure? [duplicate]

Setting aside legitimate concerns such as lack of CPA security (not to speak of malleability issues) and thus near-universal insuitability of AES-ECB for general purposes, I thought I recalled reading ...
JamesTheAwesomeDude's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
63 views

Meaning of the term "irreversible" for hashing

I was in an interesting discussion with Jon Skeet on StackOverflow. He indicated that hashes are irreversible, but he extended this to non-cryptographic hashes. A hash function has a specific output ...
Maarten Bodewes's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
77 views

What are “weak” and “strong” output-input bit dependencies?

Section 3.3.5 of the paper “Schwaemm and Esch: Lightweight Authenticated Encryption and Hashing using the Sparkle Permutation Family” (the link to PDF can be found in this page) contains the following ...
lyrically wicked's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
79 views

What is a ciphering key?

In Hebrew language there is the term tzophen (צופן) which means cipher. There is also a term "maphtech hatzpana" (מפתח הצפנה) which means "ciphering key". What is a ciphering key? ...
basicslearner's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
81 views

Is there a hash function that is semi-two-way?

I am looking for a hash function that uses a timestamp as salt, and produces an output that when run through another function only returns the timestamp used. What would this be called? It's not a one-...
Austin Capobianco's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
120 views

How do different types of ciphers relate to each other?

I understand that there are symmetric and asymmetric (public-key) cyphers. The first have the same key used for encryption and decryption, while the second use a public key for encryption and a ...
YozNacks's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
1 answer
302 views

What is an output symbol?

I'm reading Understanding Cryptography by Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl. In chapter 2 (Stream Ciphers). There is a section talking about "Bulding Key Streams from PRNGs". They assume a PRNG ...
RARA's user avatar
  • 123
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

is Client Puzzle a challenge-response variant of Proof-of-work?

is Client Puzzle a challenge-response variant of Proof-of-work? I am kind of new to crypto, sorry if the question is kind of dumb. If it's not can you give examples of algorithms that implement the ...
Van Altercolt's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
41 views

What is the difference between Solution-Verification and Challenge-Response variants of Proof of Work;

Sorry if question is really dumb, I am new to crypto :( If the client provides the solution for the PoW Challenge-Response, in my understanding, the solution of that challenge should be verified. So I ...
Van Altercolt's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
90 views

What is "entropic security"?

I've come across a form of cryptographic security that I've never heard of: entropic security. I've read the Russel et al abstract and that doesn't seem to bear much relation to the wiki article. ...
Paul Uszak's user avatar
  • 14.7k
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

"randomized" indistinguishability vs "deterministic" indistinguishability

Let $X$ be a measurable space. For each $n\in\mathbb N$, let $P_n$ and $Q_n$ be probabilities on $X$. We say that $(P_n)_{n\in\mathbb N}$ and $(Q_n)_{n\in\mathbb N}$ are statistically ...
zxcv's user avatar
  • 145
2 votes
1 answer
176 views

What's the meaning of without loss of generality in cryptography? [closed]

What's the meaning of without loss of generality in the cryptography (Zero Knowledge Proof)? Without loss of generality, suppose we want to check if a 1 = a 2 . In the following description, j ∈ { 1, ...
Sheldon's user avatar
  • 205
4 votes
0 answers
86 views

"Electronic signature" legal definition

A proposed California law contains the following definition: (i) “Electronic signature” means an electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or logically associated with an electronic record and ...
Gerard Ashton's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
271 views

What's the difference between permutation and transposition?

I am trying to understand the difference between permutation and transposition. I have seen a similar question in the forum but I would like to ask you for proper definitions and examples of each. I'm ...
Baldovín Cadena Mejía's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
61 views

What is the definition of function index

I'm reading through Indistinguishability Obfuscation from Well-Founded Assumptions and in Definition 3.1 describing sPRG, it mentions "samples a function index I." Can someone explain what a ...
Kamaroyl's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
143 views

What is reaction attack?

In the paper of "Reaction Attacks against Several Public-Key Cryptosystems" CiteSeerX link, reaction attack is defined informally as "Obtaining information about the private key or ...
NB_1907's user avatar
  • 500
1 vote
0 answers
44 views

What is aes in "operational mode"

I'm currently reading this report on the security of the IOT protocol "LoRaWAN". On page 3, it says the following: ...
NotQuiteSo1337's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
71 views

GL-SPHF and witness encryption

I recently came across this fascinating paper, and was wondering about whether the GL-SPHF that the paper constructs can be used to create a witness encryption scheme for algebraic branching programs. ...
PatrickG88's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
143 views

Is Keystore a file, a database, a specification?

What exactly are keystores? I understand they are used to store things like private keys, certificates etc. But how exactly is that done? Is it just an encrypted databases where you put all these ...
Finlay Weber's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
120 views

What is the term to describe the combination of ciphertext, IV and authentication tag?

Authenticated encryption with associated data, such as AES-GCM, will take as input: IV, optional associated data, plaintext and key. A ciphertext and an authentication tag will be produced. Is there a ...
knaccc's user avatar
  • 4,552
3 votes
1 answer
428 views

What does it mean: Hardware vs software implementation of a cryptosystem

While reading some cryptography papers, I passed by some new terms like the hardware and software implementation of encryption systems. The question: what are the hardware and the software ...
Crypt01's user avatar
  • 407
1 vote
1 answer
82 views

How do we say that one cryptographic primitive is stronger than another?

Can anyone help me understand this: How do we say that one cryptographic primitive is stronger than another?
Vshi's user avatar
  • 31
1 vote
1 answer
224 views

One way function existence

Let $x = (x_1, x_2,...,x_n)\in\{0,1\}^n$ for $n\in\mathbb{N}$. Prove that if one-way functions (OWFs) exist, then there exists a one-way function $f$ such that for every bit $i\in[1,n]$ there exists ...
maryam's user avatar
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