Questions tagged [terminology]

Questions about the meaning and proper use of specific technical terms or notation within cryptography.

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Terminology for parties in authentication protocols

Is there a common terminology to designate parties in authentication protocols? For example, we typically use prover and verifier to designate parties with zero-knowledge proofs.
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Confused about terminology in the many flavors of security [closed]

I am learning about cryptography from diverse sources, and I have found terminology a bit confusing. In principle, I understand the difference between the symbolic model and the computational model. ...
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What does the term “differential” in “differential privacy” mean?

I'm new in Differential Privacy (DP) and I have two questions: Why do we have the term differential in differential privacy? Are The local and global differential privacy and global and local ...
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348 views

What is the non-programmable random oracle model?

I would like to know the difference between the random oracle model and the non-programmable random oracle model. ​ What is the difference?
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Boolean Circuits vs Arithmetic Circuits

I am just wondering what's the differences between boolean circuits and arithmetic circuits? I know the basic notions of circuits. My question is their applications in cryptography. For example, why ...
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Would creating a custom human language be stronger protection than encrypting a known human language?

There are some languages that people haven't been able to read (Cretan Hieroglyphics for example). Does that mean that you can better protect data by making your own language than by encrypting an ...
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What's the difference between threshold signatures and multisignatures?

I was wondering what's the difference between threshold signatures and multisignatures. In what respects do they differ? For example, is n-out-of-n threshold signature, just a multisignature?
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36 views

Difference between Verification and Public Key for Signature Schemes

This is a semantics Question. Typically, in many asymmetric schemes, for this question specifically, digital signatures, we see that designers describe the key given to the verifier as Public Key. ...
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What is the difference between a digest and a hash function?

I was wondering about the difference between these two terms... What is the difference between a digest and a hash function?
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188 views

Why ``adversary'' and ``challenger'' and what are typical roles of those?

I'm confused with words adversary and challenger, that are used in proof of security of some cryptosystems. For example, adversary and challenger appear in the formal definitions of IND-CPA, IND-CCA, ...
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609 views

In laymans terms, what exactly is a “One time pad”?

Background I am an undergraduate novice learning about cryptography. Recently my professor introduced us to the concept of a "One time pad". According to my professor: A one time pad is a cipher ...
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Question about terminology of public key encryption in practice

I am asking myself the following question: Say Alice sets all things up so that she is the reciever in an RSA-system. What do you call this "network" now? I hope it is clear what I mean. I ...
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187 views

The definition and origin of Schnorr groups?

Wanting to write something on Schnorr groups in a publication I realised how hard it is to find anything citable about them on the internet. Who can help me with the following questions? What (and ...
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What is a Pedersen commitment?

I couldn't find any answer providing a high-level overview on what Pedersen commitments are or what they are used for.
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Termonology help: What is using AEAD without encrypting data called?

I'm using ChaCha20-Poly1305 in a "full AEAD" mode, where a payload of data is encrypted and a block of unencrypted "additional data" is secured as well. However, I'd like to also occasionally use the ...
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What is the difference between key size and block size (for AES)?

We are working on AES and want to develop a website which should provide an encryption facility but we are not understanding the difference between key and the block size. More appropriately what does ...
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1answer
68 views

Is a bit string pseudorandom if it starts with predictable bits?

Assume we have $k = n + m$ bits string $S$ where the first $n$ bits are predictable, and the last $m$ bits are pseudorandom (the HMAC of the first $n$ bits + IV). Can we say $S$ is a pseudorandom ...
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Is obfuscation considered a cryptographic primitive?

The general definition of obfuscation is the process of obscuring a message (not necessarily source code). There is a "rigorous" method for obfuscation (indistinguishability obfuscation, ...
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What do the signature security abbreviations like EUF-CMA mean?

From time to time, one stumbles across formal security definitions. This includes security definitions for signature schemes. The most common ones are the *UF-* ...
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419 views

What is an accurate definition for a 'Monoalphabetic substitution cipher' and why does it provide a poor level of security

From my research online, I am confused about the difference between a 'monoalphabetic cipher' and 'monoalphabetic substitution cipher'. However, I have got my answer from the websites Kifanga and ...
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427 views

Are ephemeral keys symmetric or asymmetric? [closed]

My question is: Are ephemeral keys symmetric or asymmetric? If symmetric, can ephemeral keys be created based on a (UserID || nonce)?
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What does “export grade” cryptography mean? And how is this related to the Logjam attack?

I am doing some research on the Logjam attack, and I need help in learning some terms that are new for me. What does "export grade" cryptography mean? And how is this related to the Logjam attack?
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1answer
342 views

What does “adaptively secure” mean?

In a paper it says "In the generic group model, the PRF is adaptively secure for inputs of $\mathbb{Z}_q^n$". Maybe a stupid question, but what does "adaptively secure" mean exactly?
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What is Regular Digest/Hash Function

I was reading a paper, Practical and Provably-Secure Commitment Schemes from Collision-Free Hashing where there was a reference to message digests being 'regular' Here, MD is a message digest. I've ...
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In cryptography, what is “fractionation”?

I understand how fractionation is used in the straddling keyboard, which is an important feature of the VIC Cipher, and in the Polybius Square of the ADFGVX cipher, but I am not sure how to describe ...
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139 views

Why is “key-rotation” called key-rotation?

The word "rotate" in respect to "key-rotation" has connotations of looping/repeating variable values like a rotor, but as far as I can tell there isn't a single definition available for "key-rotation" ...
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What is a related key?

We talk of related keys and related key attacks, but what is a 'related key'? So in three related parts:- How can one key be related to another key? Is there a metric describing the degree of ...
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316 views

What does modular inversion mean?

I'm trying to implement an e-voting algorithm, which is described at the paper "Internet Voting Protocol Based on Improved Implicit Security" by Abhishek Parakh & Subhash Kak. At the Example 1 ...
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What is Attribute Based Encryption?

Can someone explain what attribute based encryption is? I was searching for a book or something that can help me in this regard but so far I have found none. Google also returns practically nothing ...
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zk-SNARKs vs. Zk-STARKs vs. Bulletproofs: definitions

I have become quite familiar with Bulletproofs the last few months. Bulletproofs is the name given to a zero-knowledge proof system for arithmetic circuits, by Benedikt Bünz et al. It is a specific ...
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7k views

Definition and meaning of “semantic security”

I'm taking a Coursera cryptography course. The definition of semantic security is hard to understand. I tried to restate it with some slight changes (the word "efficient" was in the original ...
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4answers
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What is k in RSA?

I am currently learning about RSA since I didn't understand the public-key-system but now I am… kind of. So I am writing the numbers as follows: $p = prime\ number\\ q = prime\ number\\ N = Public\...
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49 views

Definition of diffusion matrix

I've been studying this article and since I'm not studying cryptography in English and it is not my native language, I don't understand some of the terminology. More precisely: what are diffusion ...
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1answer
457 views

What exactly is “Plausible Deniability in Internet Protocols”?

I am trying to understand the meaning of "Plausible Deniability Feature of Internet Protocols". To be specific, I am not able to understand what "Plausible Deniability" exactly means. Could someone ...
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What is the definition of “security beyond the birthday paradox”?

I'm reading a paper about MACs and I would like to be sure about the meaning of a security beyond the birthday paradox. Is there a definition?
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1k views

What is the meaning of “probabilistic encryption algorithm”?

I am learning cryptography by myself, and I am not able to understand the meaning of "probabilistic encryption algorithm". How is it different from "deterministic encryption algorithm"? How can ...
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What's the meaning of “Ops” in this ABE schemes performance form?

I am a Ph.D. student focusing on Attribute-Based Encryption, and now I'm reading the paper "Outsourcing the Decryption of ABE Ciphertexts", seen in Figure 1 below. It gives a summary of an ABE scheme ...
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What is the difference between “asymmetric key cryptosystem” “asymmetric cryptography” terminology?

What is the difference between "asymmetric cryptography" and "asymmetric key cryptosystem" terminology?
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Easy explanation of “IND-” security notions?

There are many schemes that can advertise themselves with certain security notions, usually IND-CPA or IND-CCA2, for example plain ElGamal has IND-CPA security but doesn't provide IND-CCA security. ...
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1answer
110 views

What is Reverse Trapdoor Function?

In wikipedia on Digital_signature: but rather, the message to be signed is first hashed to produce a short digest, that is then padded to larger width comparable to N, then signed with the ...
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Can I say “I have encrypted something” if I hash something?

As I understand it, a hashing algorithm is some kind of encryption, just a specific kind of it. So is it wrong to say "I encrypted this value." if I "only" hash it? I understand that it gives the ...
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What is labeled program

I've been studying homomorphic encryption. From their instantiations, i read Labeled Homomorphic Encryption (labHE) scheme 1 where it combines the notion of homomorphic encryption with labeled ...
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DLP instances for given number of congruences

Let $S$ be the set of $k$ congruences of the type $g_{i}^{x_i} \equiv h_i \pmod{n_i}, \quad \forall i,1\leq i \leq k$ What would be the best way to describe such set $S$ with a term in literature. ...
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Why is ISAAC not a pseudo random number generator?

I have been accused of confusion over the nature of the ISAAC algorithm. The bulk of evidence suggests that it is a cryptographically strong pseudo random number generator. By bulk I mean the number ...
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78 views

Asymmetric Encryption - How is the Public Key Being Shared?

I've been reading up on the relationship between private keys and public keys (as well as hashing), and I watched a few videos, but I am still a bit confused. I don't have a programming background, ...
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283 views

What is cryptographic sealing?

While revising my CAdES library I encountered some "sealing issue" in digital signatures. The Win SDK signtool.exe has a /seal ...
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What's the meaning of probabilities in differential privacy formula?

I don't understand what does it mean by "The probability is taken is over the coin tosses of K." Does it mean, the probability distribution is generated based on exactly same data but only the ...
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SHA-256 “almost unique”?

I have seen numerous references on the internet of people describing SHA-256 as generating an "almost unique" hash. Exhibit A. there are more. Is there some mathematical basis to the almost ...
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Difference between hash functions and algorithms?

Wikipedia lists "Hash function algorithms" within the "Hash function" page. I'm wondering what are the differences and if I can use the terms "hash(ing?) algorithm" and "hash function" interchangeably....
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The exact difference between a permutation and a substitution

I've noticed confusing definitions about permutation and substitution, preventing me from understanding the difference. A permutation changes the order of distinct elements of a set, but this can be ...

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