# All Questions

18,418 questions
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### Method for Cryptanalysis of a keyword-keyletter cipher?

I am a CS student who is in an introductory Cryptography course. I am not looking for the complete plaintext of this message, as I am not looking to cheat. I am simply stuck, and have no idea what to ...
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### Building the private key for polynomial RSA

Suppose my cryptosystem is such that I have: $n=x^{2048} + ... + x^3 + x^1$ $c = m^e \bmod \ n$ How do I construct my private key $d$?
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### maximum key stream sequence per key/iv pair in communication protocols

in the paper "LIZARD – A Lightweight Stream Cipher for Power-constrained Devices", one of the design rational of Lizard cipher is key stream size per key/iv pair. A5/1 produces only 228 keystream ...
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### Can multiple Pearson permutation tables be reduced or merged?

There was a recent question answered where the accepted solution was a double Pearson hash. It consisted of the following pseudo code:- h = T1[h ^ x[i]] followed ...
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### getting decrypted message from RSA_public_decrypt? [migrated]

I signed/encrypted a message in buffer with RSA_sign(). When I decrypt the buffer with RSA_public_decrypt(), the returned value is a digest (X509_SIG) and is not the decrypted message. I want to ...
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### SHA-3 Step by step?

Can somebody explain me or give me a link of a step by step SHA-3 explanation it has been really hard for me to undesrtand it. I would love to see an explanation since it's input untill the digest is ...
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### How does the squeeze function in the NaCL Poly1305 implementation work?

The NaCL ref implementation of the Poly1305 algorithm uses the following reduction function (which is called squeeze()): ...
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### Needham–Schroeder fix by adding opponent's identity to the first message

Recap: Needham–Schroeder is as follows: $A \rightarrow B : \{A, N_a\}_{pk_B}$ $B \rightarrow A : \{N_a, N_b\}_{pk_A}$ $A \rightarrow B : \{N_b\}_{pk_B}$ Then, there is a MITM attack by Lowe ...
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### I don't want to store passwords, can I use them as an encryption key for another field?

I'm not a 'cryptographic' anything, so if this is a super-dumb question please let me know (politely). So here's the deal, say I don't want to store passwords because that opens me up to all sorts of ...
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### How to do division using Beaver Multiplication Triples

It is very straight-forward and intuitively to achieve addition, subtraction and even generalized polynomial using Beaver's Multiplication Triples. However division seems difficult to achieve on two ...
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### RIBE Scheme Implementation - How to encrypt message

This question is regarding "A Fully Secure Revocable ID-Based Encryption in the Standard Model" - Tung-Tso TSAI, Yuh-Min TSENG, Tsu-Yang WU The encryption method specifies part of the encryption ...
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### What does XOR mean in regards to AES cryptography? [on hold]

This might be too basic to answer but I am learning about the different modes of operation and I am trying to grasp the material and having trouble deciphering the meaning. I was just wondering if ...
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### Mixed HMAC / GMAC with fixed IV

I was just thinking about improving the performance of HMAC - what would be the issues in doing the following: Let $G_K(IV,M)$ be GMAC with a key $K$, for IV and message $M$. Let $H$ be a secure hash ...
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### Decode location of an RSA encryption message [on hold]

You have intercepted an RSA encrypted message with encoding exponent 7221 and base 5829679010047531. Decode the location: 815427339135043, 5556391338134431, 2892812128428033. I have to find the ...
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### Is it possible to check if a number is the product of two primes without factorizing it?

I have a large number which I suspect may be a private RSA key (although its size, at 613 bits, seems a bit unorthodox). I have started to run a factorization algorithm on it, and after a few hours ...
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### Zero Knowledge for Low Entropy Witness

For any PPT prover ($p$) and verifier ($v$), imagine I have a low entropy witness, say smaller than $2^8$. Now, let us say I have a dlog statement in the form of $y = g^w$. Theory says I could use a ...
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### Cryptography and Security Self Learning [on hold]

I'm an IT developer but interested in Cryptography and Security. Not only I want to learn about cryptography but also want improve my skills for network security job roles. So I was looking for ...
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### Part of a challenge, from a group of adults, who break ciphers [on hold]

I am part of a group of adults, a cipher club who like to decode random ciphers, from texts to symbols and other things. We were presented with a set of 5 ciphered text, and we have managed to crack 3 ...
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### Attack on a Feistel Cipher given the key and half of the ciphertext

Consider a classical Feistel Cipher, with the round functions given and the keys used in the ciphering process. Is it possible to reconstruct the original data if half of the ciphered text is given? ...
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### human readable unpredictable & no collision uid based on time

I need to create an unpredictable uid based on time. I plan to allow it to work during a time frame of 100,000,000 seconds. So the seconds will go from 00000000 to 99999999. I need an algorithm that ...
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### Prove that a signature scheme is RUF-NMA and not EUF-CMA

I am working on the following exercise: Now, assume the following signature scheme: $\operatorname{KeyGen} (1^k$) : On input of a security parameter $k$, choose a symmetric bilinear group with ...
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### Mathematical explaination of file encryption for multiple persons with multiple keys

Let's say I want to encrypt a document which only can be read by John, Mike, and Dave. This can easily done with PGP/GPG: Import John‘s, Mike‘s, and Dave's public key Encrypt the document using those ...
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### I2P Tunnel Creation Build on Request Record Question en(de)cryption method

Not sure if anyone here can help, but if so, sure would appreciate the help. If we read the https://geti2p.net/spec/tunnel-creation documentation page on how I2P creates a tunnel, we can read on the ...
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### Comparing Shanks' Algorithm to Brute Force

I'm trying to understand how/why Shanks' algorithm solves the discrete log problem $y=g^x \bmod p$ faster than a brute force search does. Any explanation would be great.
In page 358 of Bruce Schneier's Apllied Crypto, when explaining the meet-in-the-middle attack, he states that the success probability is «1 in $2^{2m - 2n}$» with two plaintext/ciphertext pairs, and «...