# All Questions

4,703 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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### Adding bit constants to the key schedule to reduce rounds?

Bit constants are often added to the key schedule to reduce slide attacks. I have reviewed David Wagner's work, where he showed that the increased rounds in a Feistel network do not help if you have ...
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### The aftermath and considerations of the new record of 30750-Bit Binary Field Discrete Logarithm - 2020

Granger et al. recently published a paper about breaking a record for discrete logarithm on the Binary field Computation of a 30 750-Bit Binary Field Discrete Logarithm, Robert Granger and Thorsten ...
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### Finding $x$ such that $g^x\bmod p<p/k$?

In a Schnorr group as used for DSA, of prime modulus $p$, prime order $q$, generator $g$ (with $p/g$ small), how can we efficiently exhibit an $x$ with $0<x<q$ such that $g^x\bmod p<p/k$, for ...
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### RSA factorization for special primes $p$ and $q$

I want to factorize the modulus $n = pq$ knowing that $p$ and $q$ are not random, but constructed based on integer numbers $a$ and $b$ as following ($a$ and $b$ are not given): p = a^2 + b^2, \...
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### Fewest qubits required for the discrete logarithm problem and integer factorization

According to a paper from 2002, the most efficient circuit to factor an $n$-bit integer requires $2n+3$ qubits and $O(n^{3}\lg(n))$ elementary quantum gates, assuming ideal qubits. Later on, according ...
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### Has Telegram security been significantly improved with MTProto 2.0?

Telegram messenger's original encryption scheme, MTProto 1.0, has been shunned by most cryptographers for a number of reasons, like being vulnerable to IND-CCA attack; being unorthodox in general, ...
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### Given a 'good' basis for a lattice, how can we solve the CVP?

I'm doing a little bit of reading about lattices. I read that if we can find a 'short' basis for our given lattice, we can solve CVP and SVP very efficiently. However, the paper didn't describe an ...
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### The backdoor of Telegram on Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and possibly other examples?

Diffie-Hellman Key-Exchange (DHKE) should be used carefully during the end-to-end encryption. A man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack is possible. Standard DHKE The simple protocol on the multiplicative ...
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### Space complexity of quantum collision search?

Is there a known way to reduce the space complexity of quantum collision search (PDF) beyond what is offered by the built-in time-space tradeoff, while keeping the time complexity significantly below ...
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### RSA key such that pi deciphers to your name per RSA-OAEP

Can you efficiently construct an RSA public/private key pair with $8k$-bit public modulus such that $C=\left\lfloor\pi\,2^{8k-2}\right\rfloor$ deciphers per RSA-OAEP to your name as a bytestring in ...
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### How Significant is the New Quasi-Polynomial-Time Attack on Fixed Characteristic Discrete Logarithms?

There is a new paper by Kleinjung and Wesolowski on eprint that claims and proves a new attack on the discrete logarithm problem in finite fixed characteristic fields in quasi-polynomial time. ...
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### RSA factorization with special primes

Suppose that primes for RSA modulus are generated using formula: $P_i(x,y) = \operatorname{next\_prime}(x^{z_i}+y^{z_i}) = x^{z_i}+y^{z_i}+d_i$ where $x,y$ are unknown random numbers with size 128 ...
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### Potential Flaws With Lattice Based Cryptography?

From researching post-quantum cryptographic schemes it seems hash-based and lattice-based algorithms are the most promising (MQ-based seem to be covered by patents and have more potential unknowns ...
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### Yaos Millionaire Problem: Why distance >= 2?

I'm currently reading about Yao' Millionaire Problem: http://research.cs.wisc.edu/areas/sec/yao1982-ocr.pdf Alice and Bob want to know which of them is richer. Let $j \in \{1, \cdots 10\}$ be Bobs ...
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### Requirements for security against multi-target attacks, for McEliece and other code-based cryptosystems?

This question is potentially relevant to NIST post-quantum cryptography standards, involving code-based cryptosystems such as McEliece, BIKE and HQC. For these cryptosystems, it seems that an attacker ...
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### Why does the Signal protocol use AES/CBC instead of AES/GCM?

AES/GCM has obviously proved itself to be better than AES/CBC. Unless the key is re-used with the same initialization vector (see disadvantages of GCM). More information on its advantages against CBC ...
241 views

### How to build a security model

What are the minimal components to build a security model proof for a protocol? This question might seem trivial, but having read many papers-- from the IEEE, ACM, etc., that talk about a KMP-- I ...
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### Decision R-LWE parameters for spherical error with worst-case hardness

In Peikert et al.'s most recent work (STOC 2017) a direct reduction of worst-case lattice problems to decision R-LWE is achieved for $\alpha q \ge 2 \cdot \omega(1)$ (Theorem 6.2), where $\alpha q$ is ...
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### How exactly does ASKE (Alpha Secure Key Establishment) in Zigbee work?

I am working on Zigbee security. For key establishment, some approaches are given in Zigbee. Some of them are: ASKE (Alpha Secure Key Establishment), ASAC (Alpha Secure Access Control), and SKKE (...
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### Why SIVP Is Worst Case Problem?

I just started to study lattice Cryptography. I'm now studying worst-case to average-case reduction for SIS. In previous question, "worst means any and average means random". And I wonder why the ...
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### What level of security is provided when a Feistel Cipher is used as a round function of another Feistel Cipher?

Recently, I was reading: Are there any specific requirements for the function F in a Feistel cipher?, and the answer posted mentions a Feistel Cipher named Turtle, which uses a four-round Feistel ...
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### What is the origin of the phrase "Don't roll your own crypto"?

The phrase is well-known and widely used, it is often attributed to Bruce Schneier and is indeed relevant to his Schneier's Law. However, I wasn't able to find this specific wording among Schneier's ...
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### Offline Group Key Agreement - Cross Device Syncing

I have a specific use case I am interested in. I have spent the better part of the night reading research papers. I am beginning to believe what I want is not possible so I wanted to confirm here. ...
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### Do trinomials weaken the Alternating Step Generator?

The Alternating Step Generator was proposed by Christoph G. Günther: Alternating step generators controlled by de Bruijn sequences, in proceedings of Eurocrypt 1987. It's perhaps the conceptually ...
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### Share Conversion between Different Finite Fields

Let us have any linear secret sharing scheme (LSSS) that works on some field $Z_{p}$, where p is some prime or a power of a prime e.g., Shamir Secret Sharing, Additive secret Sharing. The problem at ...
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### Are there attacks against broken RSA signature pad checking with $e = 65537$?

Let's say that an RSA implementation of PKCS #1 signatures fails to validate that the 00 01 FF FF FF ... FF 00 portion of the decrypted signature is exactly as long ...
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### Comparison of SNARK-friendly hash algorithms MiMC7, Poseidon, Pederson?

There are some cryptographically secure hash algorithms designed to be efficient for SNARKs, STARKs and FHE. Some of them already implemented in Zcash, Zokrates and circom. The ones that I know of are:...
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