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I'll read the question as: From a 224-byte text, we know from a hex dump all excepts the first 37 bytes and the last 26 bytes, which are damaged. We also know the (32-byte) SHA-256 of the text. How can we find the full text, or a full text with the same hash? As the existing answer implies, the hash does not directly allow to find What's missing: SHA-256 ...


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No, there's no easier way than to just try brute force. A hash is constructed deliberately in such a way that even two very close inputs can produce two very different hash outputs. That property is known as the avalanche effect. Is it possible to stumble upon a collision of this hash since I know 322 known digits in the middle of the text? Also no, there ...


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The easiest way to look "under the hood" of AES is likely one of the many AES in Excel spreadsheets that are floating around: https://www.nayuki.io/page/aes-cipher-internals-in-excel You will also need to sort out how the initial message was padded because the AES block size is 128-bits, and "Hello" is not 128-bits. There is a value to ...


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As others have said, yes, you can do it by hand. I'm not aware of any task a conventional (ie not quantic) computer can do and you cannot. However, it could be that some tasks they can perform in one second would take a human an entire life. Also, as pointed in one comment, what you have here is not "pure" AES. AES takes 128 bits blocks, and keys ...


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It would be very long (if it is even feasible) given that it continues at least ten rounds. If you want to do something manageable, you can practice with the simplified aes, which is made precisely for practicing by hand tasks. It continues only two rounds and reduced parameters. If you want to decode the real AES, my advice is to try to do one round of it ...


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It would take you a while, but yes. You'd have to print out several tables that calculate things for you like $GF(256)$ field multiplication and inversion, but you could do it. It would be slow and tedious for sure, but doable.


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There's nothing that you can do from a purely passive point of view. The private information relating to the certificate does not directly provide any information about the ephemeral keys used in the ECDHE exchange. This is part of the promise of forward security that ephemeral schemes provide. You can actively set up a man-in-the-middle gateway that ...


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