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The problem 'given a group and the elements $g, g^x, g^y$, find $g^{xy}$' is known as the Diffie-Hellman problem (or, more precisely, the computational Diffie-Hellman problem). As for how difficult it is, well, we typically work with groups where this is difficult (by design; we often need to assume that the DH problem is hard). As for how it might be ...


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The key point in RSA is the fact that inversion in modulo $|G|$ is hard, of course other groups are a priori okay to build a secure encryption scheme. For example $U_{pqr}$, with $p, q, r$ large primes seems to be okay. But it will be probably less efficient (keys and ciphertexts will be probably larger for the same level of security). Of course, it is not ...


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A GUESS: the author meant that three numbers $a,b,c \in \mathbb{Z}$ such that $$g^a\cdot h_1^n \cdot h_2^c =1$$ are infeasible to compute. While the term "orthogonal" seems inappropriate, This is a fairly standard assumption.


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It is correct to me. Polynomial is not evaluated in the elliptic curve group $G$, but in $F_q$ (where $q$ is the order of $G$), which is a field because $q$ is a prime number. To be clearer, I add brackets to the equation you gave: $$X_i = \prod_{j=0}^{t-1} (C_j)^{{i}^j} = \prod_{j=0}^{t-1} (g^{\alpha_j})^{ i^j}= (g)^{ \sum^{t-1}_{j=0} \alpha_j i^j}$$ You ...


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