A tag is a keyword or label that categorizes your question with other, similar questions. Using the right tags makes it easier for others to find and answer your question.

Pairing-based cryptography uses bilinear maps to create a gap group that allows efficient constructions of certain primitives.
233 questions
Irreversibly converting user-selected passwords into authentication tokens that can be safely stored e.g. in a user database. Typically done with a salted password-based key derivation function (PBKDF…
233 questions
The Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2 (PBKDF2) is a method of securely deriving encryption keys from a passphrase entered by a user. It features an iteration count that can be deliberately adju…
232 questions
Ciphers invented before the era of computers and modern cryptographic theory. Classical ciphers typically operate on letters instead of bits and are usually designed to be implemented by hand or using…
232 questions
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding information. This process converts the original representation of the information, known as plaintext, into an alternative form known as cipherte…
200 questions
attacks using information leaked by implementations of cryptographic algorithms to obtain information about keys or (plaintext) data, instead of (or additional to) using cryptographic weaknesses.
196 questions
Salt is unique (usually random) data passed into a hash function for password storage to avoid the possible usage of rainbow tables or similar attacks. Salt will not help against dictionary or brute f…
194 questions
A commitment scheme is a protocol where one party commits themselves to a secret value without revealing it. At a later point, the value can be revealed.
194 questions
A chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis in which the cryptanalyst gathers information, at least in part, by choosing a ciphertext and obtaining its decryption under an un…
187 questions
The attacker knows at least one sample of both the plain text and the cipher text.
183 questions
Protocol analysis is the detailed analysis of the security of an abstract or concrete cryptographic protocol.
182 questions
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a U.S. federal agency that works with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards.
179 questions
Confidentiality in a very strong sense. Ciphers reaching perfect-secrecy can't be broken to disclose informations over the plaintext from the ciphertext, even with unlimited computing power. The most …
173 questions
A "nonce" is an arbitrary number or string used only once within the context of a specific cryptographic scheme. Nonces are used e.g. in authentication protocols to prevent replay attacks, as well as …
172 questions
A way, esp. one of several possible variations, in which a set or number of things can be ordered or arranged.
167 questions
Ed25519 is an algorithm for producing digital signatures. The algorithm is based on Edwards curves introduced by Bernstein et al. (2007) and named after mathematician Harold M. Edwards.
166 questions
The process of encrypting individual files on a storage medium and permitting access to the encrypted data only after proper authentication is provided.
164 questions
A Pseudo-Random Permutation (PRP) is a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
163 questions
Difficulty of finding an input string that hashes to a given value
161 questions
Encryption using a key derived from a password or passphrase entered by the user.
157 questions
A substitution cipher is an encryption algorithm which works by replacing plaintext units with corresponding ciphertext units, following some rule depending on the key.
153 questions
SHA-3, also known as Keccak, is a cryptographic hash function standardized by NIST as a new alternative to the SHA-2 hash function family.
153 questions
Deprecated tag, see tag info. Advanced Encryption Standard Galois/Counter Mode, better known as AES-GCM is a mode of operation for symmetric key cryptographic block ciphers that has been widely ado…
Mathematical problems that are thought to be difficult to solve for all cases in polynomial time
150 questions
A public-key cryptosystem invented by Pascal Paillier in 1999.
149 questions
ChaCha is a family of stream ciphers proposed by Daniel J. Bernstein, as an evolution of Salsa20 with (conjecturally) improved resistance to cryptanalysis.
145 questions
Linear Feedback Shift Register, a pseudorandom bit generator which can be efficiently implemented in hardware.
144 questions
Learning with Errors is a form of lattice problem used in the design of cryptographic primitives. LWE is based on the Closest Vector Problem (CVP).
143 questions
Key generation is the process of generating keys for cryptographic purposes.
142 questions
Signature schemes built out of and based on properties of hash functions. **DO NOT USE THIS TAG** if the signature is based on other hard problems and just happen to employ a hash function.
In a cryptographic sense, integrity means unimpaired and complete.
135 questions
Electronic Code Book (ECB) is a mode of operation for a block cipher, with the characteristic that each possible block of plaintext has a defined corresponding ciphertext value and vice versa.
135 questions
Cryptographic hardware enables the handling of cryptographic tasks and/or problems using hardware instead of software solutions.
130 questions
A model used in cryptographic security proofs, in which concrete primitives such as hash functions are replaced with a "random oracle": a hypothetical black box that maps its inputs to truly random ou…
128 questions
A feistel-network or feistel cipher is a structure that has been used to create a number of different block ciphers (e.g., DES, Blowfish, Twofish, RC6).
127 questions
SHA-2 is a family of cryptographic hash functions designed by the NSA and published by NIST in 2001. The family includes various output lengths (224, 256, 384, and 512 bits).
127 questions
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