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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
"The sodium crypto library". A cryptographic multi-language-library with support for many modern cryptographic primitives, that is a fork of the NaCl library. The library focuses on providing easy-to-…
a sequence of bytes or bits, having a fixed length (the block-size).
A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
a method of hierarchically hashing data. They allow efficient parallel hashing and updates and the possibility of verifying partial data.
A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
a form of lattice problem used in the design of cryptographic primitives. LWE is based on the Closest Vector Problem (CVP).
A structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways.
a password hash or password-based key derivation function, which won the password-hashing competition in 2015.
Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms. Blowfish was designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as an alternative to existing encryption algorithm…
A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
Hash-based digital signatures, such as Lamport one-time signatures, are digital signature schemes based on a (non-trapdoor) one-way function such as a cryptographic hash. Such schemes are expected to …
a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion.
an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
concerned with sending messages via electronic signals in the most efficient and error-free way.
Difficulty of finding another input string that hashes to the same value as a given string
the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
an algorithm that expands a relatively short master key to a relatively large expanded key for later use in an encryption and decryption algorithm.
a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
a modern cryptographic protocol for password authenticated key exchange (PAKE). It provides some desireable properties, like a passive eavesdropper being unabl…
a padding scheme for RSA, codifying how short plaintext is enciphered and deciphered. It has a security reduction to the RSA problem.
a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
a construction scheme for hash functions (and other symmetric primitives) based on an unkeyed permutation. The most famous example is Keccak, which won the SHA-3 competitio…
In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
Transport security about establishing a real time secure channel from a sender to a receiver. Transport security generally requires more protection and a more intricate protocol than securing data at …
an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.