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a method of hierarchically hashing data. They allow efficient parallel hashing and updates and the possibility of verifying partial data.
A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
used to estimate the likelihood of a hypothesis given a set of data. In cryptanalysis, statistical testing is commonly used to detect non-randomness in the data, e.g. distinguis…
A structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways.
Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms. Blowfish was designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as an alternative to existing encryption algorithm…
A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
a modern cryptographic protocol for password authenticated key exchange (PAKE). It provides some desireable properties, like a passive eavesdropper being unabl…
Difficulty of finding another input string that hashes to the same value as a given string
"The sodium crypto library". A cryptographic multi-language-library with support for many modern cryptographic primitives, that is a fork of the NaCl library. The library focuses on providing easy-to-…
a form of lattice problem used in the design of cryptographic primitives. LWE is based on the Closest Vector Problem (CVP).
a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
concerned with sending messages via electronic signals in the most efficient and error-free way.
an algorithm that expands a relatively short master key to a relatively large expanded key for later use in an encryption and decryption algorithm.
an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
a construction scheme for hash functions (and other symmetric primitives) based on an unkeyed permutation. The most famous example is Keccak, which won the SHA-3 competitio…
Transport security about establishing a real time secure channel from a sender to a receiver. Transport security generally requires more protection and a more intricate protocol than securing data at …
a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
The Counter with CBC Mac mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher based on the CTR mode and the CBC-MAC algorithm. .
a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization. It …
Disk encryption protects information by encrypting every byte that is written to a HD or virtual disk volume.