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Difficulty of finding another input string that hashes to the same value as a given string
A block cypher encryption algorithm built from applying three iterations of the original DES algorithm.
a type of public-key encryption in which the key used for encryption is based on selected attributes of the readers. Decryption of the ciphertext is possible only if the …
a possible goal of cryptography, where the idea is to restrict access to documents, equipment, locations, or keys to individuals who are authorized such access.
a one way membership function. It answers a query as to whether a potential candidate is a member of a set without revealing the individual members of the set.
a type of side channel attack which exploits sounds emitted by computers or machines.
An adversary model formally defines the power of the adversary. It includes specifics whether the adversary is deterministic/randomized, uniform/non-uniform, interactive/non-interactive and how he int…
a symmetrical block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes of 128, 192 or 256 bits.
Deprecated tag, see tag info. Advanced Encryption Standard Galois/Counter Mode, better known as AES-GCM is a mode of operation for symmetric key cryptographic block ciphers that has been widely ado…
A type of monoalphabetic substitution cipher, wherein each letter in an alphabet is mapped to its numeric equivalent, encrypted using a simple function `(ax + b) mod m`.
a method of cryptanalysis against a cipher 1)expressing the cipher operations as a system of equations. 2)substituting in known data for some of the variables. 3)sol…
a relatively new asymmetric key agreement protocol (also designated the Colored Burau Key Agreement Protocol), based on a simultaneous conjugacy search problem in a braid group.
Design of cryptographic primitives (algorithms), like block ciphers, stream ciphers, random-number generators, hash functions, MACs, key exchanges, public-key encryption or signature schemes. Also tag…
a cryptographic pseudorandom number generator intended to be used in a stream cipher.
Anonymity describes the state of being unknown or unacknowledged.
a password hash or password-based key derivation function, which won the password-hashing competition in 2015.
a branch of mathematics usually concerned with the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplication and division) of positive numbers.
Design philosophy for ciphers. ARX solely relies on additions, rotations and XORs to build ciphers and similar algorithms. This usually constructs ciphers that are highly resistant against side-channe…
a language that defines the way data is sent across dissimilar communication systems.
A cryptographic attack tries to theoretically and/or practically attack the security properties of a cipher and/or algorithm.
Combination of encryption and authentication in a way that ensures confidentiality and integrity.
successfully validating that an entity you are communicating with is actually who they claim to be. The entity typically demonstrates who they are by showing they possess a secret th…
evident if, when an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit) the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip).
A backdoor in a cryptosystem or algorithm allows someone to obtain access to the decrypted data, without the need for the key/password that was used to encrypt the data.
a password hashing/password based key derivation function published in 2016.
a password-based (equivalently: entropy stretching) Key Derivation Function proposed in 2016.
an intentionally slow hash algorithm specially designed for passwords.
a function $f$ from a set $X$ to a set $Y$ with the property that, for every $y$ in $Y$, there is exactly one $x$ in $X$ such that $f(x) = y$. It follows from …
a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…